Lecture 9 RH - Cosmopolitan and Economically Important Families Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 9 RH - Cosmopolitan and Economically Important Families Deck (135):
1

Do monocots or dicots take over more cultivated land?

Monocots take over most of our cultivated land

2

What kind of plant is the apiaceae?

Dicot with 300 genera and 3000 species

3

What is the growth habit of apiaceae?

Herbs (mostly)

Shrubs (some)

Trees (few)

4

What does cosmopolitan mean?

Can be seen all around the world

5

Is apiaceae cosmopolitan?

Yes mainly North temperate

6

On what basis is umbelliferae named?

Based on the inflorescence (umbel=umbrella)

7

What is umbelliferae?

An apiaceae

8

How often do apiaceae flower?

Some are annual, biennial or perennial

9

What do the stems of apiaceae look like?

Generally hollow or internodal

10

What do the leaves of apiaceae look like?

Variable venation

Alternate

Simple/compound leaves

Sheathing at the base in some species

Aromatic

Some have stipules others don't

11

Which more commonly have sheathing at the base of stipules, monocots or dicots?

monocots

12

What type of inflorescence do apiaceae have?

Single or compound umbel

Small flowers

Bisexual

Actinomorphic (radially symmetrical)

Highly reduced calyx

5 sepals, 5 petals, 5 stamens

Inferior gynoecium

13

What is the floral formula of apiaceae?

K5 C5 A5 G(2)-

*- is above the 2

14

What type of fruit does apiaceae have?

Dry

Indehiscent schizocarop

Splits into 2 mericarps containing single seed which separate at maturity and are dispersed by wind

15

What do seeds of apiceae look like?

Oily endosperm

Contain fatty oils (Petroselinic acid)

16

What is the spotting characteristic of apiaceae?

Flowers arranged like an inverted umbrella

17

What is the growth habit of asteraceae families?

Herb (mostly)

Shrubs (rarely)

Trees (rarely)

Lianas/Vines (rarely)

18

What do the leaves look like in asteraceae?

Alternate or basal rosette (mostly), Opposite (some), Whorled (rarely)

Simple or compound

Lamina dissected or entire

Exstipulate (mostly) or stipulate (rarely)

19

What kind of defensive features do asteraceae have?

Milky latex which is toxic`

20

What are the distinguishing features of asteraceae flower?

Inflorescence is specialized and called florets.

Large receptacle which consists of many modified flowers and surrounded by bracts

Entire flower head is known as the capitulum

21

What is the shape of corymbose?

Umbel shaped

22

What is the shape of the racemose?

Unbranched

23

What is the difference between a ray floret and a tubular floret?

Tubular floret is typically located in the middle of the flower and is a perfect flower.

Ray floret is located on the edges of a flower and is more linear in shape

5 petals are fused at a time in tubular florets (some 4) whereas 2 are fused in a ligulate floret

24

What is a pappus?

Pappus is derived from the calyx and formed from bristles. It is a hairlike structure around flowers

25

What are the types of bristles?

Simple: like dandelions

Barbellate: Covered with barbs, hooks, or bristles

Plumose: Feather-like in appearance

26

What are the types of influorescence heads?

Radiate: Tubular and liguate florets. (Heterogamous)

Ligulate: Ligulate florets only (homogamous)

Discoid: Tubular florets only (homogamous)

Disciform: Inner tubular florets, outer florets differet but never ligulate (homogamous or heterogamous)

27

How do asteraceae typically reproduce?

They are usually gynomonoecious where the anthers form a tube around the style.

They are very rarely hermaphrodite, dioecious, andrioecious, gynodioecious, and polygamomonoecious

28

What can be said about the number of florets and composition of each floret in asteraceae?

Floret number varies from few to many

Florets are either homo or heterogamous depending on type of flower heads.

29

What do asteraceae fruit typically look like?

Seeds are indehiscent.

2 types of seed:

Cypsela (common) inferior achene

Drupe (rare)

30

A capitulum with heterogamous tubular florets are called?

disciform

31

What are the brassicaceae also known as?

Mustard family

32

What are the morphological features of brassicaceae?

Cross shaped based on flowers of 4 petals

33

What is the habit ofbrassicaceae?

Annual or perennial herb mostly with some shrub species

34

Where are brassicaceae plants located?

Temperate climates and in the northern hemisphere around the mediterranean and Asia.

35

Why is it important to be able to identify plants from their morphology?

Plants typically have toxic lookalikes and often some plants themselves are harmful to some people and not to others.

36

What is the typical floral formula for brassicaceae?

K4 C4 A6 G(2)_

37

What is the typical floral formula for brassicaceae?

K4 C4 A6 G(2)_

38

What is the leaf shape of brassicaceae?

Simple or dissected

39

What are some characters of brassicaceae leaves?

Sharp taste

Strong unpleasant odor when crushed

40

Why can the floral formula of brassicaceae be K4 C4 A4+2 G(2)_?

Because there are 4 long stamens and 2 short ones

41

What type of flowers do brassicaceae have?

Bisexual

Actinomorphic

Racemes

42

What type of flowers do brassicaceae have?

Bisexual

Actinomorphic

Racemes

43

What are the type of fruits that brassicaceae produce?

Siliques (long with heart shape)

Silicle (short)

Nut (rarely)

44

Are brassicaceae toxic?

None are toxic. Some cause allergic reactions to some people.

45

What is unique to brassicaceae?

Crucifix flowers

46

What are cucurbitaceae and what plants are part of this family?

The gourd family and it is characterized by cucumbers, pumpkins, etc

47

What are cucurbitaceae and what plants are part of this family?

The gourd family and it is characterized by cucumbers, pumpkins, etc

48

Why are cucurbitaceae bitter?

Produces glycosides as well as bitter tasting chemicals to ward off animals from eating it

49

What type of plants are cucurbitaceae?

Mostly vines in the tropics/sub-tropics

50

What do cucurbitaceae flowers look like?

Yellow or white

5 petals

Dioecious or monoecious

51

What type of fruit do curbitaceae produce?

Berries

52

Are cucurbitaceae toxic?

Not all but most are toxic

53

Which type of plants are fabaceae?

Legumes, peas, beans, pulse family

54

Which type of plants are fabaceae?

Legumes, peas, beans, pulse family

55

What type of plant are fabaceae?

Trees, shrubs, herbs, lianas (vines)

56

What arrangement do leaves of fabaceae follow?

Compound (trifoliate, bipinnate), or simple

Mostly stipulate with some exstipulate

Leaflets evolved

57

What arrangement do leaves of fabaceae follow?

Compound (trifoliate, bipinnate), or simple

Mostly stipulate with some exstipulate

Leaflets evolved

58

How do fabaceae grow themselves?

Spreads itself out using tendrils

59

What do caesalpinioideae flowers look like?

Sepals are free, petals free, zygomomorphic

60

What do mimosoideae flowers look like?

Sepals are fused

Petals are fused

Actinomorphic (globose inflorescence)

61

What do papilionoideae flowers look like?

Sepals are fused

Petals are free and fused

Zygomorphic

62

What do papilionoideae flowers look like?

Sepals are fused

Petals are free and fused

Zygomorphic

63

What is the general structure of a flower of a plant form the fabaceae family?

Bisexual or unisexual flower (monoecious, andomonoecious, polymonoecious)

Zygomorphic

64

What do fabaceae petals look like?

Variable in shape and size

Irregular formation

Imbricate in bud

Posterior petals united (=keel)

65

What do fabaceae petals look like?

Variable in shape and size

Irregular formation

Imbricate in bud

Posterior petals united (=keel)

66

What is the floral formula for fabaceae?

K5 C3, (2) A10 G1

It can also be:
K5 C2, (3) A10 G1

67

What is the importance of fabaceae plants?

Very important for human nutrition (second most important plant product after grass family)

Soil nutrition is improved due to rhizobium bacteria

68

What is the floral formula for liliaceae?

P3+3 A3+3 G(3)_

69

What type of vegetation is liliaceae?

Primarily bulbaceous

Some herbaceous and mostly non-succulent

70

What is unique to liliaceae?

It is composed of 6 tepals

71

What can be said about the survivability of orchids?

They are very good at surviving in harsh conditions

72

What makes apiaceae like monocots despite being dicots?

The stem is hollow

73

How is the gynoecium of apiaceae oriented relative to the rest of the flower?

Inferior gynoecium with 2 carpels

74

What kind of fruit do apiaceae produce?

Indehiscent schizocarp which separates into 2 mericarps at maturity.

75

How are apiaceae fruit dispersed?

Wind

76

What is the composition of apiaceae seeds like?

Oily endosperm and fatty oils

77

What plant produces petroselinic acid?

It is one of the components of seed oily endosperm

78

What type of fruit is fig?

Multiple fruit

79

What family are figs a part of?

Moraceae

80

What is a bract?

a bract is a leaf-like structure inferior to the sepals

81

How do asteraceae reproduce?

Bisexual

Unisexual

Can also be sterile

Anthers form a tube around the style females florets are ligulate

82

What kind of fruit do asteraceae typically produce?

Crypsela which is an inferior achene

Rarely they produce drupes

83

Do discoid inflorescences have heterogamous tubular florets?

No only disciform inflorescences do

84

Why do fabaceae tend to have tendrils?

Fabaceae produce tendrils because they are typically vines

85

Brassicaceae floral formula:

K4 C4 A6 G(_2)

86

What subfamilies does the fabaceae family contain?

Caesalpinioideae: Sepals free, petals free, zgomorphic/

Mimosoideae: Sepals fused, petals fused, actinomorphic

Papilionoideae (aka faboideae)

87

What is the gender of fabaceae flowers and what is the symmetry?

Bisexual (hermaphroditic)

Unisexual (monoecious or polymonoecious)

Zygomorphic symmetry

88

How is the flower arranged in fabaceae?

5 fused sepals

5 fused or free petals.

10 stamens

Erect pendulous clusters

89

What do flowers of caesalpinioideae look like?

Sepals and petals are free and they are zygomorphic

90

What do mimosoideae flowers look like?

Sepals are fused and petals are fused.

Flower is actinomorphic

Looks like a coloured dandelion (globose inflorescence)

91

What do papilionoideae (faboideae) look like?

Look like a typical fabaceae flower with fused sepals and petals free and fused

Zygomorphic

Looks like a folded structure

92

How are faboideae petals free and fused?

Keel is made up of fused petals whereas the other petals are free or fused

93

What is the typical floral formula for lilidaceae?

P3+3 A3+3 G(3_)

94

How do lilidaceae plants grow?

They are bulbous plants that form from bulbs

95

Are lilidaceae monocots or dicots?

Monocots

96

What is typical lilidaceae morphology like?

Actinomorphic

Bisexual (in most) or unisexual (in few)

6 tepals, free or fused, in 2 whorls of 3's

97

What are some important representatives of lilidaceae?

Hyacinth (in perfumes)

98

What is unique to lilidaceae?

6 tepals

99

What is the largest plant family of them all?

Orchidaceae

100

What are the most importnat orchidaceae subfamilies?

Epidendroideae

Orchideae

101

Are orchids monocots or dicots?

Monocots

102

What are some orchidaceae plants that are consumed by people?

Vanilla

103

What are some abnormal features of orchidaceae?

Some species lack leaves: Achlorophyllous and instead are mycoheterotrophic

104

How do orchidaceae that lack chlorophyll survive?

They use fungi in order to extract nutrients from other sources.

105

How are orchid flowers typically arranged?

Single or racemose inflorescence: racemes, spikes, panicles, headlike, umbellate.

Distichous or spirally arranged

106

What do orchidaceae flowers look like?

Most orchids are zygomorphic, with the exception of a few.

3 petaloid sepals, free or fused

3 petaloid parts in inner whorl: 2 petals and 1 modified labellum

Inferior ovary

1-3 stamens

Pollen is released as single grains

Filaments are fused to the style

107

What is the orchid's floral formula?

K3 C3 A1 G(-3) *A1 and G(-3) are joined.

*(-3) indicates a fused superior ovary

108

How do orchid's reproduce?

They rely on insect deception where an insect mates with a dud flower part and ejaculates into the orchid and as a result collects pollen

109

What do fruit of orchids look like?

Dehiscent, capsule with 3 - 6 horizontal slits

Small seeds that are less that 5mm in diameter

Non endospermic and rely on exogenous nutrient sources as well as symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi and beneficial bacteria

110

What is unique to orchidaceae?

Modified leaves, petals, and seeds

111

Why is poaceae so economically important?

It provides 3/4 of our food (starch, alcohols, sweeteners)

112

What is the floral formula of poaceae?

P2 A3 G(2_) (inferior ovary)

113

What kind of plants are poaceae?

Grasses

114

How are poaceae so successful?

They reproduce sexually using abundant floret masses

They are wind pollinated and seed dispersal is dependednt on wind

They have asexual vegetative characteristics such as the ability to regenerate from blade base and stolon/rhizome expansion (clonal population)

Adaptations in carbon fixation (C3 grasses during cool season and C4 during hot season)

115

What are some important subfamilies for poaceae?

Bambusoideae (bamboo and rice)

Pooideae (wheat, barley, oats)

Chloridoideae (Windmill)

Panicoideae (Maize, sorghum, sugar cane)

116

What is the inflorescence like in poaceae?

Spikelet. (each spikelet contains single or mutliple florets)

Some florets are fertile and others are sterile

The floret is covered by 2 bracts

117

What do florets look like in poaceae?

Bisexual or polygamous

Additional inner scales/bracts: 1 upper palea and 1 lower lemma

Hair/bristle appendages

118

What is the composition of the androecium?

3 or 6 stamens; 3 is the most common case

119

What is the composition of the gynoecium?

Single compound pistil

2 or 3 carpels

Equal number of styles with feathery stigma

Superior ovary

1 locule with 1 ovule

120

What type of fruit do poaceae produce?

Caryposis aka Grains

Simple, dry fruit

indehiscent

Formed from a single carpel

Pericarp fused with thin seed coad

121

What is nutrition like in poaceae?

High in complex carbs, low in fat

122

What is the floral formula of typical rosaceae?

K5 C5 A∞ G1-∞

123

What type of inflorescence do rosaceae have?

solitary or multiple

124

What is the vegetative arrangement of rosaceae?

Simple (mostly)
Compound (pinnate

Alternate (mostly)

Stipulate (mostly)
exstipulate (some)

125

What do flowers look like in rosaceae?

5 petals and 5 sepals joined on a receptacle (some have bracts

Cup like appearance

Many stamens

1-many styles

126

What are the 3 main subfamilies?

Pomoideae (Maloideae) which is the apple sufamily

Prunoideae which forms drupes that are single seeded and simple

Rosoideae which produce aggregate, achenes or druplets

127

What causes the browning of apples?

polyphenol oxidase enzyme

128

What inhibits activity of polyphenol oxidase?

Acidity which results from lemon addition or vinegar addition.

129

What is the solonaceae family?

Potato or nightshade family

130

What is the habit type of solonaceae?

Herb

Shrub

Trees

Vines (often prickly)

131

Are solonaceae toxic?

Most are

132

What is the floral formula of solonaceae?

K(5) C(5) joined to A5 G(2_) (inferior ovary)

133

What is the fruit type of solonaceae?

Capsule (common)

Berry (common)

Drupe (rare)

134

What do seeds of solonaceae look?

Many scattered within the fruit

135

What is the problem of cultivating cosmopolitan families?

Damage is done to plant diversity