Flashcards in Lecture 9: Sugars & Sweeteners Deck (36):
Fact or Folklore: If it's natural, it must be good for you.
-No correlation between naturalness and healthfulness
-FDA & USDA don't define "natural"
-The most toxic substances known are perfectly natural (botulin toxin, Aflatoxin B)
Fact or folklore: If you can't pronounce it, you shouldn't eat it.
-Names are just labels --> they don't tell you anything about the chemical or structure
Fact or folklore: You shouldn't have chemicals in your food.
-Everything is a chemical or a collection of chemicals and has a chemical name
-Real concern = whether the chemicals are healthful or harmful and in what amount
-Bulk of our diet
-Determine the properties of foods
-Nutritional implications (carbohydrates, fats, proteins)
-Most abundant organic molecules
-Initial source of all food (photosynthesis)
-"carbon hydrates" = carbon hydrated with H2O
-Formula = Cn(H2O)n
-Suffix = "-ose"
-Classified according to the # of carbon atoms
-Most foody sugars of made of hexoses (6 carbons)
How are sugars drawn?
Cyclized or sometimes straight-chained
What do carbohydrates provide?
-Energy (~4.5 Cal/g)
-Carbon (to make other things)
-Fiber (no energy)
-A disaccharide composed of 2 monosaccharides (glucose & fructose)
What are other names for glucose & fructose?
-Dextrose & levulose
-Grape sugar & fruit sugar
List the stages/degrees of sugar refining in order of increasing processing.
2. Raw sugar
3. Brown sugar
4. White sugar
-Concentrate juices from sugar-bearing plants (most often sugar cane)
-Contains substances other than simple sugars
-Various grades and darknesses of color
What are the two different processes used to make molasses?
Industrial processing of molasses
-Edible sugars are made in a way that no foreign objects get into it
-Non-food version of sugars
-Should be the first crystallization of sugar from boiling down (concentrating) sugar cane extract
-Some products now refer to this as "crystallized cane extract" (sounds more natural)
-Has more taste/flavor than white sugar
-Hygroscopic = holds moisture and makes things stay moist
-Sucrose is its common chemical name
-White table sugar
-Only taste it has is sweetness
-Uniform quality = 99.99+% purity
-Cheapest sweetener produced on a large scale
-Obtained from hydrolysis of corn starches by acids or enzymes
-Less sweet than sucrose
-Mixture of polymers and fragments
-Inhibits crystallization of sugars (recall Alton's vid)
Process of splitting a molecule apart and adding the equivalent of a water molecule to the products
High fructose corn syrup
-Ordinary corn syrup can be treated with enzymes to produce HFCS
-Sweeter than regular corn syrups
-Cheaper product than sucrose
-Can adjust the fructose:glucose ratio
Suffix = "-ase"
-Sucrose from plants is converted from a disaccharide to 2 monosaccharides by invertase
Concern about honey
-Has bacterium Clostridium botulinum
-Infants who died from SIDS have been found with spores of C. botulinum
Process of adding hydrogen to molecules
How are sugar alcohols prepared?
By hydrogenation simple sugars
-Sugars from maple sap
-Flavors & color produced during "boil down" (boiling off water)
-Maple syrup is composed of: 2/3 sugars, 1/3 water
Issues with artificial sweeteners
-Implied that it helps with weight control
-Studies are showing that it has no effect or that it's actually correlated with increased obesity
How is there a correlation between artificial sweeteners and obesity?
-Peeps on weight-gain trajectory are more likely to use low-cal sweeteners
-Sugar consumption causes a feeling of satiety --> feel full faster when you eat sugar
-Satiety feeling not activated with AS --> overcompensation (eat more)
-Low blood sugar suppresses metabolism --> lower BMR --> burn calories more slowly
-AS are sweeter than regular sugars --> increase sweetness tolerance
List the approved low Cal sweeteners
-Manufactured by Nutrinova
-Approved for products such as baked goods, frozen desserts, candies, and beverages
-About 200x sweeter than sugar
-Composed of 2 natural amino acids (Aspartic acid + Phenylalanine)
-Label must have a warning that it contains phenylalanine
-200x sweeter than sucrose
-Not heat stable
-6000x sweeter than sucrose
-Phenylalanine not released (unlike Aspartame)
-Sweet N Low
-300x sweeter than sucrose
-Used to be declared a carcinogen, but repealed b/c it is only harmful in extremely large amounts
-600x sweeter than sucrose
-Cannot be digested, so it doesn't add any calories to food
List the low calorie sweeteners not yet approved by the FDA
-Alitame = 2000x sweater than sucrose
-Cyclamate = 30x sweeter than sucrose (banned from U.S. b/c of political factors)