Lecture-Chapter 1 Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

Fall Semester 2017 > Lecture-Chapter 1 Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture-Chapter 1 Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology Deck (45):
1

Anatomy

the study of structure or form or how things are built

2

Physiology Overview

the study of the function of body parts or how things work and what they do

3

Gross Anatomy

working on structures visible to naked eye, can use hands, tools (ex. dissection)

4

Microscopic Anatomy

using microscope
2 fields: cytology (study of cells); histology (study of tissues)

5

Surface Anatomy

used in hospital or healthcare settings
surface features (covered in skin)
palpate to find location

6

Embryology

study of structural changes of conceptus to birth

7

Disciplines of Anatomy

Gross, microscopic, surface, embryology

8

Physiology (specific)

focus is mainly on function at molecular and cellular levels of various organ systems

9

Renal physiology

kidney function

10

Neurophysiology

nervous system function

11

Cardiovascular physiology

heart, blood vessels, and blood function

12

Complementarity of structure and function

If you can figure our how it was built you can start to figure out function.
Anatomy complements physiology and vice versa
Ex: Bones-take them away and you start to see what their function is-structure, support, function, mineral reservoir

13

Interdependence among cells

cells/organs/organ systems can specialize
Heart is a transport system, but won't work well if cardiovascular system isn't working
Multicellular organisms whose cells perform different functions to help each other out, but this creates a dependency

14

Body's Levels of organization

Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism

15

Chemical

atoms form to combine molecules and macromolecules
most basic or simplest level

16

Cellular

Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life.
Molecules combine to form this unit.
Cell is the first that's alive

17

Tissue

groups of similar cells that perform common functions
Epithial, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue

18

Types of tissue

Epithial, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue

19

Organ

A group of 2 or more tissues forming a specific structure.
Performs a specific function (ex. heart = cardiac cells & connective tissues)

20

System

2 or more organs working toward a common goal
Cardiovascular system (pump & plumbing)

21

Organism

One complete being
Most complex

22

Characteristics of Living Things

Necessary life functions, survival needs

23

Necessary Life functions

maintain boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth

24

Maintain boundaries

Keep internal environment separate from external environment.
Insides in and outsides out
Skin/integumentary system - for body
cell/cell membrane - cellular level

25

Movement

All activities caused by muscles (skeletal, cardiac, smooth??)

26

Responsiveness

sensing changes in environment
ex: nervous system - excitable

27

Digestion

breaking down food into molecules that cells use
digestive system

28

Metabolism

the sum of ALL chemical reactions of the body (grossly & chemically)
Break down
Build larger

29

Metabolism break down

take it in & break it down to cellular level
break larger molecules to smaller ones
high metabolism
starch - sugar (glucose) -catabolic process

30

Catabolic process

breaks it down

31

Anabolic process

Build larger

32

Metabolism build larger

low metabolism
amino acids-protein
anabolic process (anabolic steroids - body builders build up muscle)

33

Excretion

removing wastes from the body
urinary system
kidneys a big part of this

34

Reproduction

producing offspring
reproductive system

35

Growth

increase in organ or body size due to increasing cell numbers (not size)

36

Survival Needs

Nutrients, oxygen, water, body temperature, atmospheric pressure

37

Nutrients

chemicals for fuel (energy) and building blocks for growth or repair
carbohydrates, proteins, fats

38

Carbohydrates

Main fuel (energy)
Brain obligate glucose feeder (ketogenic diet starves brain)

39

Proteins

Growth & repair - building blocks

40

Fats

storage form of excess energy intake & building blocks

41

Oxygen

required to "burn" fuel
oxidative reactions

42

Water

the most abundant substance in the body
50-60% of our weight is h2o (adult range)
Child's range is higher
Older adult is lower
required for various chemical reactions
dehydration synthesis (anabolic process) & hydrolysis (catabolic process)

43

Body Temperature

must maintain 37 degrees celsius

44

Temp too cold

chemical reactions slow down

45

Temp too hot

initially chemical reactions speed up, if too much proteins denature then they will start to cook insides (heat exhaustion, etc)