Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 11-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 11-14 Deck (86):
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__________ infection: infection limited to a small area of the body i.e. boil

Local

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__________ infection: infection spread throughout the body i.e. AIDS

Systemic

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__________ infection: infection starts out local, and then some part of the microbe spreads to other regions of the body i.e. tetanus

Focal

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Focal infection: infection starts out local, and then some part of the __________ spreads to other regions of the body i.e. __________

-microbe
-tetanus

5

__________ infection: several agents establish themselves simultaneously at the infection site
This is also called a polymicrobial infection i.e. Dental caries

Mixed

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Mixed infection: several agents establish themselves __________ at the infection site
This is also called a __________ infection i.e. Dental caries

-simultaneously
-polymicrobial

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__________ infection: The first infection i.e. HIV

Primary

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__________ infection: Follows the primary. Usually caused by opportunistic microbes i.e. Pneumonia,
Retinitis caused by CMV

Secondary

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Secondary infection: Follows the primary. Usually caused by __________ microbes i.e. Pneumonia, __________ caused by CMV

-opportunistic
-Retinitis

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__________ infection: Rapid onset of signs/symptoms, but lasts for a short time i.e. Influenza - Short incubation period

Acute

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Acute infection: Rapid onset of signs/symptoms, but lasts for a __________ time
i.e. __________ - Short incubation period

-short
-Influenza

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__________ infection: Slow onset of signs/symptoms, but lasts for a long time i.e. Tuberculosis - Long incubation period

Chronic

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Chronic infection: Slow onset of signs/symptoms, but lasts for a __________ time
i.e. __________ - Long incubation period

-long
-Tuberculosis

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__________ : objective evidence of disease. Can be observed or measured
-ex. Temperature, Blood Pressure, Heart rate

Sign

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Sign: objective evidence of disease. __________ be observed or measured
-ex. Temperature, __________, Heart rate

-Can
-Blood Pressure

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__________ : subjective evidence of disease. Symptoms cannot be observed or measured
(felt by patient) symptoms = Pain, fatigue, nausea, dizziness

Symptom

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Symptom: subjective evidence of disease.
__________ be observed or measured
(felt by __________ )
symptoms = Pain, fatigue, nausea, dizziness

-Cannot
-patient

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__________ : when a disease can be identified or defined by a certain complex of signs/symptoms

Syndrome

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-Infectious syndrome, __________ by a microbe - - -
-Noninfectious syndrome, __________ by a microbe

-caused
-not caused

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__________ syndrome - - Staphylococcus

Toxic shock

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: __________ syndrome

infectious

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Congenital Rubella Syndrome: __________ syndrome

infectious

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Down Syndrome: __________ syndrome

Noninfectious

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: __________ etiology

unknown

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__________ - Barr virus, the cause of mononucleosis (kissing disease), was thought to be the etiology, but this theory has been discarded.

Epstein

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Epstein - Barr virus, the cause of mononucleosis (__________ disease), was thought to be the etiology, but this theory has been __________.

-kissing
-discarded

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Name of this will be changed to SEID or Systemic __________ Disease

Exertion Intolerance

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The prevalent symptom on mononucleosis is __________

fatigue

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__________ Syndrome: can be infectious or noninfectious - SIDS

Sudden Infant Death

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__________ : example of when SIDS is classified as infectious

Infant Botulism

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-Infant Botulism-

Caused by __________ botulinum; a bacterium that is found naturally is soil

Clostridium

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-Infant Botulism-

Can get into __________ when bees collect the pollen

honey

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-Infant Botulism-

If infants eat contaminated honey the organism will grow in their __________, and produce a highly potent neurotoxin called __________

-G.I. tract
-botulin

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-Infant Botulism-

This toxin (__________) prevents muscle contraction

botulin

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-Infant Botulism-

This toxin (botulin) prevents muscle contraction.
Result is “__________ syndrome”

floppy baby

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-Infant Botulism-

Infant dies of __________ failure (diaphragm will not contract)

respiratory

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-Infant Botulism-

Infant under the age of __ should not be fed honey or __________ syrup

-1
-maple

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-Infant Botulism-

__________ won’t get disease from eating honey since their normal flora contains high numbers of __________, which produce bacteriocins.

-Adults
-E. coli

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-Infant Botulism-

Adults won’t get disease """
The __________ prevent the C. botulinum endospores from __________ so toxin is not produced.

-bacteriocins
-germinating

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__________ : pure, dilute, active botulin

Botox

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__________ : Uses include for cosmetic purposes, treatment for a migraine, treatment for excessive __________, treatment for over-active bladder

-Botox
-perspiration

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__________ : the infectious agent is in a dormant state

Latency

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Chickenpox caused by __________-Zoster Virus - type of __________ virus

-Varicella
-herpes

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__________ caused by Herpes Zoster Virus

Shingles

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Shingles can not transmit __________, shingles transmits __________

-shingles
-chickenpox

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Shingles:
-Highest incidence in people over __ years of age (vaccine for prevention)
- __________ deficiency
-Medication
-Stress

-65
-Immune

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Shingles:
-Highest incidence in people over 65 years of age (vaccine for prevention)
-Immune deficiency
- __________
- __________

-Medication
-Stress

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Cold Sore caused by __________

HSV 1

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__________ :

Nonsexual transmission (above the waist)

Cold Sore caused by HSV 1

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Genital Herpes caused by __________

HSV 2

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__________ :

Sexual transmission (below the waist)

Genital Herpes caused by HSV 2

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__________ : after-effects of a disease
i.e. paralysis that remains after a person recovers from polio

Sequelae

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Sequelae: after-effects of a disease
i.e. __________ that remains after a person recovers from __________

-paralysis
-polio

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__________ : Fraction of a population that contracts disease during a stated time period.
-New cases

Incidence

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Incidence: Fraction of a population that contracts disease during a stated time period.
- __________ cases

New

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__________ : Fraction of a population that has disease during a stated time period.
-Old plus New cases - Larger #

Prevalence

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Prevalence: Fraction of a population that has disease during a stated time period.
- __________ cases - Larger #

Old plus New

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__________ disease: Occasional cases are reported at irregular intervals in random locales

Sporadic

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Diphtheria is __________ due to vaccination

sporadic

60

Typhoid fever is sporadic due to hygiene and __________

sanitization

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__________ disease: Exhibits relatively steady frequency over a long time period

Endemic

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__________ disease:
A large number of a population are infected, but only a low percentage have disease. So there are a lot of carriers within the population

Endemic

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Endemic disease:
A large number of a population are __________, but only a low percentage have disease. So there are a lot of __________ within the population

-infected
-carriers

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Influenza is __________ in America

endemic

65

Endemic __________ : The natural occurrence of disease within a population

incidence

66

Endemic precautions (when traveling):

-Vaccination
-Only drink boiled or bottle water
-Don’t use __________ unless it’s made from boiled or bottle water
-Don’t eat __________

-ice
-salad

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Endemic precautions (when traveling):

-Don’t eat fruit you won’t peel - grapes, apples are high risk (washed with dirty water)
-__________
-Insect repellant
-Bed (mosquito) netting
-Anit-__________ medication
-taking antibiotics before sick

-Prophylaxis
-malaria

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__________ : When there is a peak in the endemic incidence

Epidemic

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Epidemic: When there is a peak in the __________ incidence

endemic

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__________ :
Large number of cases occur in a relatively short time

Epidemic

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Epidemic:

- __________ in America
-Whooping __________ in California

-AIDS
-Cough

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__________ : Worldwide epidemic

Pandemic

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Pandemics in the past include __________, and Influenza

Smallpox

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Diseases currently classified as pandemic by the WHO include __________ and __________

-AIDS
-TB

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__________ : The primary habitat in the natural world where the pathogen originates

Reservoir

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Reservoir: The primary habitat in the natural world where the __________ originates

pathogen

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Reservoir:

- __________
-Animal
- __________

-Human
-Nonliving

78

__________ disease: disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. (Rabies, Lyme disease, West Nile Fever)

Zoonotic (zoonoses)

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Zoonotic disease (zoonoses): disease of animals that can be transmitted to __________. (Rabies, __________, West Nile Fever)

-humans
-Lyme disease

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__________ : a person or animal who harbors the pathogen, without any signs or symptoms.
Subclinical infection

Carrier

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Carrier: a person or animal who harbors the __________ , without any signs or symptoms.
-__________ infection

-pathogen
-Subclinical

82

__________ carrier: can transmit the microbe while they are in the incubation period

Incubation

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__________ carrier: can transmit the microbe after they have recovered from the disease

Convalescent

84

Convalescent carrier: can transmit the microbe after they have __________ from the disease

recovered

85

__________ carrier: transmit the microbe without being infected themselves.
i.e. health care workers

Passive

86

Passive carrier: transmit the microbe without being __________ themselves.
i.e. __________ workers

-infected
- health care