Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 3-11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 3-11 Deck (149):
1

__________ : study of disease

Pathology

2

__________ : cause of the disease

Etiology

3

__________ : manner in which a disease occurs

Pathogenesis

4

Structural and functional changes brought on by the disease
These are commonly referred to as __________ of disease

signs/symptoms

5

__________ : Invasion and colonization of the body with pathogens

Infection

6

Infection: Invasion and colonization of the body with __________

pathogens

7

__________ : When infection results in a change from the normal state of health

Disease

8

A UTI is an example of where the term __________ is used to mean disease

infection

9

A UTI is an example of where the term infection is used to mean disease

There is a difference though between an STI (__________) and an STD (__________)

-infection
-disease

10

__________ Infection: Infection with signs/symptoms (—disease)

Clinical

11

__________ Infection: Infection without signs/symptoms (—infection)
A person with a subclinical infection is called a carrier

Subclinical

12

Subclinical Infection: Infection without signs/symptoms (—infection)
A person with a subclinical infection is called a __________

carrier

13

__________ disease: disease not caused by a microbe

Noninfectious

14

Noninfectious disease: disease __________ by a microbe

not caused

15

__________ disease: disease caused by a microbe

Infectious

16

Infectious disease: disease __________ by a microbe

caused

17

Example of a disease that was previously thought to be noninfectious but are now classified as infectious: __________

Ulcer

18

Ulcers: caused by __________ pylori

Helicobacter

19

The microbe __________ is the cause of 80% of gastric and duodenal ulcers

Helicobacter pylori

20

__________ found in people who have stomach cancer

Helicobacter pylori

21

Treatment of Ulcers includes a “cocktail” of __________ and antacids

-antibiotics

22

__________ cancer: Human Papilloma Virus

Cervical

23

__________ cancer: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus

Liver

24

__________ : The study of the frequency and distribution of disease and other health related factors in defined human populations

Epidemiology

25

Epidemiology: The study of the frequency and distribution of __________ and other health related factors in defined human __________

-disease
-populations

26

__________ : When and where disease occurs and how it is transmitted

Epidemiology

27

__________ is the primary government agency responsible for keeping track of infectious disease nationwide

CDC

28

__________ : By law cases of diseases within this category must be reported to public health authorities.

Reportable (Notifiable) Disease

29

Reportable (Notifiable) Disease: By law cases of diseases within this category must be reported to __________ authorities.

public health

30

Reportable (Notifiable) Disease: By law cases of diseases within this category must be reported to public health authorities.

(both sexually transmitted diseases)
- __________ Chlamydia
-

-Genital
-Gonorrhea

31

__________ : Physician diagnosed disease

Case

32

__________ : Two or more cases from the same source

Outbreak

33

__________ : the earliest documented case of disease in an epidemiological study

Index case

34

__________ : Regardless of case reporting or public health screening, a large number of cases of infection in the community go undiagnosed and unreported. (actual number is 10-100 times the number of cases)

Iceberg Effect

35

Iceberg Effect: Regardless of case reporting or public health screening, a large number of cases of infection in the community go __________ and unreported. (actual number is __________ times the number of cases)

-undiagnosed
-10-100

36

MMWR: Morbidity and __________ Weekly __________

-Mortality
-Report

37

__________ : Incidence of notifiable diseases

Morbidity

38

__________ : Deaths from notifiable diseases

Mortality

39

__________ : a person whose resistance to infection is impaired in some way.

Compromised host

40

__________ : also known as risk factors; any factor that increases risk for developing disease; these Include: gender, genetics, age, occupation, and lifestyle

Predisposing (risk) factors

41

Predisposing (risk) factors: also known as risk factors; any factor that increases risk for developing __________; these Include: gender, __________, age, occupation, and __________

-disease
-genetics
-lifestyle

42

__________ : The characteristic route that the microbe takes when it enters the body; the most virulent microbes can cause disease by entering through any portal.

Portal of Entry

43

Portal of Entry: The characteristic route that the __________ takes when it enters the body; the most __________ microbes can cause disease by entering through any __________.

-microbe
-virulent
-portal

44

Portals of entry include:

-__________ through the parenteral route (puncture):
-__________ tract:
-Respiratory tract:
-Urogenital tract

-Skin
-Gastrointestinal

45

Portals of entry include:

-Skin through the parenteral route (puncture):
-Gastrointestinal tract:
- __________ tract:
- __________ tract

-Respiratory
-Urogenital

46

-Portals of entry-

Skin through the parenteral route (puncture): __________

tetanus

47

-Portals of entry-

Gastrointestinal tract: __________ difficle causing pseudomembranous __________

-Clostridium
-colitis

48

-Portals of entry-

Respiratory tract: __________

tuberculosis

49

-Portals of entry-

Urogenital tract:
This is the most common portal for __________

sexually transmitted diseases (STD)

50

__________ : The specific avenue that microbes take when they leave the body.

Portal of Exit

51

Portal of Exit: The specific avenue that microbes take when they leave the __________.
In many but not all cases the portal of exit is the __________ as the portal of entry

-body
-same

52

-Portal of Exit-

Respiratory and Salivary portals: __________

tuberculosis

53

-Portal of Exit-

Skin scales: __________

Warts

54

-Portal of Exit-

Gastrointestinal: __________

Clostridium difficle

55

-Portal of Exit-

Urogenital tract: __________

HIV/AIDS

56

-Portal of Exit-

Removal of blood or bleeding: __________

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

57

__________ : Pathogens that infect during pregnancy and birth

Vertical Transmission

58

-Vertical Transmission-

-Some microbes will cross the __________ barrier
-Other microbes will infect while the baby passes through the __________

-placental
-birth canal

59

Diseases that are transmitted vertically are classified under the acronym __________

STORCH

60

-STORCH-

S= __________
T = Toxoplasmosis
O = Other: Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = Rubella
C = Cytomegalovirus
H = Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

Syphilis

61

-STORCH-

S= Syphilis
T = __________
O = Other: Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = Rubella
C = Cytomegalovirus
H = Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

Toxoplasmosis

62

-STORCH-

S= Syphilis
T = Toxoplasmosis
O = __________ : Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = Rubella
C = Cytomegalovirus
H = Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

Other

63

-STORCH-

S= Syphilis
T = Toxoplasmosis
O = Other: Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = __________
C = Cytomegalovirus
H = Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

Rubella

64

-STORCH-

S= Syphilis
T = Toxoplasmosis
O = Other: Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = Rubella
C = __________
H = Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

Cytomegalovirus

65

-STORCH-

S= Syphilis
T = Toxoplasmosis
O = Other: Hepatitis B, AIDS, Gonorrhea, Listeriosis, and Chlamydia
R = Rubella
C = Cytomegalovirus
H = __________

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2)

66

-Syphilis-

Etiology: __________ pallidum

Treponema

67

-Syphilis-

Reservoir: __________

Human

68

-Syphilis-

Mode of Transmission: __________

STD or STI

69

-Syphilis-
Mode of Transmission: STD or STI
Direct contact: contact must occur with the __________

syphilis sore

70

-Syphilis-

__________ with the disease can pass it to the babies (vertical transmission)

Pregnant women

71

Syphilis cannot be spread by __________

fomites

72

__________ : contaminated inanimate object

Fomite

73

__________ syphilis:
-single sore (called a chancre)
-heal on its own

Primary

74

__________ syphilis:
-rash, does not itch
-The rash often appears as rough, "copper penny" spots on both the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet

Secondary

75

__________ syphilis:
-clear up on their own
-multiple chancres
-more contagious
-The secondary stage will gradually subside

Secondary

76

At the end of the Secondary stage of syphilis:

Approximately one third of infected persons will recover __________ , meaning they are not infectious and there is no further evidence of disease.
Another one third of individuals will revert back to __________ syphilis and then to tertiary syphilis
The final third will progress first into __________ and then into tertiary syphilis

-fully
-secondary
-latent

77

The __________ (hidden or dormant) stage follows secondary syphilis

latent

78

Syphilis __________ be transmitted person to person while its latent

can not

79

Syphilis __________ transmitted Vertically (during pregnancy and birth)

Can be

80

Latent syphilis:
__________ signs or symptoms are present, but there are high levels of __________ in serum

-No
-antibodies

81

Tertiary syphili:

-gummas
-__________ stage

destructive

82

-Tertiary syphilis-
__________ - when it affects the brain

Neurosyphilis

83

-Tertiary syphilis-

__________ syphilis - when it affects the heart

Cardiovascular

84

__________ syphilis (Vertical transmission)

-syphilitic stillbirth
-treated after 4th month of pregnancy

Congenital

85

Congenital syphilis (Vertical transmission)

- __________ stillbirth
-treated after ___ month of pregnancy

-syphilitic
-4th

86

Syphilis Treatment:

- __________ penicillin
-Treatment is not effective during the__________ stage of the disease

-antibiotic
-tertiary

87

Syphilis Prevention:

- __________ use
-To reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis pregnant women are given a blood test and if the test is (+) she would be treated with __________

-Condom
antibiotics

88

__________ : Caused by Toxoplasma gondii; this is a protozoon

Toxoplasmosis

89

Toxoplasmosis: Caused by Toxoplasma gondii; this is a __________

protozoon

90

__________ = where organism is naturally found

reservoir

91

-Toxoplasmosis-

The reservoir for the organism is animal (__________)

rodents

92

-Toxoplasmosis-

It is __________ in rodents. From rodents it gets transmitted to __________

-enteric
-cats

93

-Toxoplasmosis-

__________ are the intermediate host

Cats

94

-Toxoplasmosis-

From cats it can be transmitted to __________ by fecal-oral transmission (__________)

-humans
-ingested

95

-Toxoplasmosis-

Most people have a __________ infection (no signs or symptoms) to this, but the microbe can become __________ in some people

-subclinical
-latent

96

-Toxoplasmosis-

Those who are severely compromised can develop __________ or go blind

encephalitis

97

-Toxoplasmosis-

This microbe will transmit __________ resulting in miscarriage, __________, or brain damage

-vertically
-blindness

98

-Toxoplasmosis-

CDC recommendation is that pregnant women and __________ should not clean out a __________ or in general should be aware of the danger of this disease from cats. (Especially cats that go outdoors)

-immunocompromised
-cat box

99

-Toxoplasmosis-

__________ - Infected but develops immunity

Seropositive

100

-Toxoplasmosis-
__________ - Never been exposed before

Seronegative

101

There has been a strong correlation between __________ and changes in behavior

toxoplasmosis

102

__________ caused by Listeria monocytogenes (Food poisoning)

Listeriosis

103

Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes (__________ )

Food poisoning

104

-Listeriosis-

Due to poor quality control, many pre-cooked products have been __________ such as hot dogs and deli meat, and bagged __________

-contaminated
-salad

105

__________ : This pathogen will grow at room temperature and the fridge, but it will grow faster in the refrigerator.

Listeriosis-

106

Heat will kill __________, so cooking food will destroy this microbe

Listeria

107

-Listeriosis-

Most people who consume an I.D. have a __________ infection unless __________

-subclinical
-immunocompromised

108

-Listeriosis-

People with immune deficiency will develop __________ ; treatment is antibiotics

meningitis

109

-Listeriosis-

If a pregnant woman consumes an I.D., she will usually have a subclinical infection, but the microbe will cross the placental barrier and cause __________. Transmission can also occur in the __________ leading to meningitis or septicemia

-miscarriage
-birth canal

110

-Listeriosis-

C.D.C. recommendation is that people in high risk groups should not consume __________, hot dogs, bagged salad, or __________ cheeses unless the food is cooked

-deli meat
-unpasteurized

111

Chlamydia:
The etiology is Chlamydia __________

trachomatis

112

Cause of genital chlamydia also known as __________ urethritis (NGU) [not caused by gonorrhea]

nongonococcal

113

-Chlamydia-

This is an __________ —most people have an __________

-STD/STI
-STI

114

__________:
When vertically transmitted it will cause inclusion conjunctivitis (eye infection) that without treatment (Repeated Infections) will lead to the eyelids turning inwards.

Chlamydia

115

Chlamydia:
When vertically transmitted it will cause inclusion __________ (eye infection) that without treatment (Repeated Infections) will lead to the __________ turning inwards.

-conjunctivitis
-eyelids

116

Chlamydia:

inclusion conjunctivitis (eye infection) that without treatment (Repeated Infections) will lead to the eyelids turning inwards
This is called __________ and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. [preventable had it been treated with __________]

-Trachoma
-antibiotics

117

Chlamydia:

The eyelashes scrape the cornea causing ulceration -- __________-

blindness

118

Trachoma is sporadic in America because of the use of __________ ointment which is the treatment for __________ conjunctivitis

-antibiotic
-inclusion

119

Chlamydia:

Inclusion conjunctivitis can also be transmitted by:
- __________
- __________ i.e. towels
-Auto inoculation (self inoculation- touching something then touching eye)
-Public pools (“swimming pool” conjunctivitis)
-Chlorine will kill Chlamydia

-Flies
-Fomites

120

Chlamydia:

Inclusion conjunctivitis can also be transmitted by:
-Flies
-Fomites i.e. towels
-Auto __________ (self inoculation- touching something then touching eye)
-Public pools (“swimming pool” conjunctivitis)
- __________ will kill Chlamydia

-inoculation
-Chlorine

121

Gonorrhea:

Etiology is __________ gonorrhea

Neisseria

122

-Gonorrhea-

When vertically transmitted it causes ophthalmic __________ (large amount of puss)

neonatorum

123

-Gonorrhea-

Without treatment this will lead to __________

blindness

124

-Gonorrhea-

__________ drops used to be applied as prophylaxis in the eyes of newborns to control this, but this prophylaxis has been changed to __________ ointment.

-Silver nitrate
-antibiotic

125

-Gonorrhea-

Silver nitrate prevents __________ neonatorum but not inclusion __________

-ophthalmic
-conjunctivitis

126

Antibiotic ointment prevents both conditions.

- __________ neonatorum
- __________ conjunctivitis

-ophthalmic
-inclusion

127

Rubella virus is the cause of __________ , also known as the 3 day measles (usually does not kill)

German measles

128

__________ :
very mild childhood disease that usually causes subclinical infection; signs and symptoms include fever and rash

Rubella

129

Rubella: very mild childhood disease that usually causes __________ infection; signs and symptoms include __________ and rash

-subclinical
-fever

130

Rubella:
The disease is sporadic in America due to __________

vaccination

131

Rubella:
The vaccine is __________; attenuated vaccine

MMR

132

Rubella:

If the virus transmits vertically (__________) during the 1st trimester the consequences include:
- __________ (blindness)
-Brain damage
-Deafness
-Miscarriage

-seronegative
-Cataracts

133

Rubella:

If the virus transmits vertically (seronegative) during the 1st trimester the consequences include:
-Cataracts (blindness)
- __________
-Deafness
- __________

-Brain damage
-Miscarriage

134

Rubella:
virus transmits vertically (seronegative) during the 1st trimester, it is known as __________ Rubella Syndrome

Congenital

135

Congenital Rubella Syndrome will not occur if the pregnant woman has immunity to Rubella (__________ ), as the fetus will be protected by maternal __________. This is why vaccination is so important.

-seropositive
-antibodies

136

A pregnant woman who is seronegative to Rubella would not be vaccinated since the vaccine is __________ and reversion could occur; leading to developmental __________

-attenuated
-defects

137

__________ :
This is a type of Herpes virus (latent (dormant) virus)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

138

__________ :
It is found in saliva, tears, mucus, urine, feces, semen, and cervical secretions of carriers

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

139

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

Most people become infected during __________ or once __________ activity begins (STI).

-childhood
-sexual

140

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

Usually cause as __________ infection; a significant majority of adults are antibody (_) to CMV

-subclinical
-+

141

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

If the virus transmits __________ it will cause brain damage, blindness, __________, or miscarriage

-vertically
-deafness

142

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

There is __________

no vaccine

143

In immunocompromised people CMV is __________. It will activate from its __________ state.

-opportunistic
-latent

144

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

The consequences include __________ and retinitis.

pneumonia

145

__________ :This is the leading cause of blindness in AIDS patients

-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-

146

H = HSV 2 (Herpes Simplex Virus 2) - [cause of genital __________ ]

herpes

147

-H = HSV 2 (Herpes Simplex Virus 2)-

Consequences of vertical transmission include:
Herpes __________ (brain)
Herpes __________ (eyes)
Cigarette burn appearance

-encephalitis
-keratitis

148

-H = HSV 2 (Herpes Simplex Virus 2)-

Pregnant women in __________ period - __________ transmit

-latent
-can not

149

-H = HSV 2 (Herpes Simplex Virus 2)-

The recommendation is that a pregnant woman with a history of __________ should deliver by
C-section

genital herpes