Lecture Review Questions (from power points) Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology Test #2 > Lecture Review Questions (from power points) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture Review Questions (from power points) Deck (30):
1

What are the key neurotransmitters/hormones of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Dopamine

2

Name the types of receptors that bind acetylcholine and where are they located?

nicotinic = ganglionic receptors in both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems

muscarinic = effector organ on parasympathetic side; neuromuscular junction on skeletal muscles

3

A muscarinic agonist causes what effects in the eye?

miosis

4

A muscarinic agonist causes what effects in the respiratory system?

bronchoconstriction

5

A muscarinic agonist causes what effect in the cardiovascular system?

slow HR

6

A muscarinic agonist causes what effect in the genitourinary system?

urinary emptying --> stimulation of muscles, relaxation of sphincters

7

A muscarinic agonist causes what effect in the gastrointestinal tract?

Aids in digestion:

increase motility

relax sphincters

increase secretions

8

Name the types of adrenergic receptors

alpha1

alpha2

beta1

beta2

dopamine

9

What effect would a muscarinic agonist have on the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system?

None

no muscarinic receptors on the sympathetic side of the autonomic nervous system

10

What is the name of the enzyme that metabolizes acetylcholine?

acetylcholinesterase = AChE

11

What are the names of the two enzymes that metabolize norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine?

MAO

COMT

12

What is NET and what does it do?

it is a transporter

responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into axon terminals in the synapse between two nerves

13

What effect occurs when alpha1 receptors are stimulated by agonists in the cardiovascular system?

None in the heart

peripheral vessels = vasoconstrictors (increase BP)

14

What effect occurs when alpha2 receptors are stimulated by agonists in the cardiovascular system?

vasoconstriction if give locally

vasodilation in the brain

15

What effect occurs when beta1 receptors are stimulated by agonists in the cardiovascular system?

found just in the heart

causes increase HR and contractility

16

What effect occurs when beta2 receptors are stimulated by agonists in the cardiovascular system?

found throughout the vasculature

causes vasodilation

17

Why do organophosphates inhibit acetylcholinesterase for so long compared to other types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors?

they covalently bond to AChE

18

What effects do anticholinergic agents have on the eye?

mydriasis

decrease secretions

19

What effects to anticholinergic agents have on the respiratory tract?

bronchodilation

20

What effects do anticholinergic agents have on the gastrointestinal tract?

slow motility

21

What effects do anticholinergic agents have on the genitourinary tract?

Urinary retention

22

What actions occur with the use of adrenergic antagonists in the cardiovascular system?

vasodilation:

drop in BP

slow HR

decrease contractility (beta1)

23

What actions occur with the use of adrenergic antagonists in the pulmonary system?

bronchoconstriction --> worsen asthma/copd

24

What actions occur with the use of adrenergic antagonists in the eyes?

decrease intraocular pressure

25

What actions occur with the use of adrenergic antagonists on glucose?

block mechanisms that contribute to hypoglycemia

26

What actions occur with the use of adrenergic antagonists on lipids

increase LDL

decrease HDL

27

Explain the mechanism of action of a ganglionic blocking agent?

Antagonist of nicotinic receptors @ the ganglionic level of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

28

What is the difference between a non depolarizing neuromuscular blocker and a depolarizing neuromuscular blocker?

Have the same effect in the end

nondepolarizing NM block = antagonist of nicotinic receptors

depolarizing NM block = super agonist; keep binding and stimulating, muscle can't relax, can't depolarize --> paralysis

29

What is ISA? How does it change the effect of a beta blocker?

ISA = intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

beta-blocker that also acts as a beta agonist

30

What are some limitations of beta blocker use?

worsen COPD/asthma symptoms

bradycardia

blocks compensatory mechanisms of and masks symptoms of hypoglycemia

worsen's pts w/ high cholesterol