Lectures 2-7 Week 1 & 2 Combined Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures 2-7 Week 1 & 2 Combined Deck (187):
1

What is the lithotomy position?

for examination of genitals and anal area, hips and knees fully flexed, thighs separated

2

What is the coronal?

the front plane, frontal section

3

What is the midsagittal?

the median plane/median section

4

What is the axial?

Transverse, XS - cross section

5

Anterior

towards the front - coronal plane

6

Posterior

towards the back

7

Superior

towards the head....horizontal plane

8

Inferior

towards the feet

9

Medial

towards the midline...sagittal plane

10

Lateral

away from the midline

11

Ventral

(Anterior) towards the belly

12

Dorsal

(Posterior) towards the back

13

Cranial/Rostral

(Superior) towards the head

14

Caudal

towards the tail

15

Proximal

nearer to the trunk

16

Distal

away from the trunk

17

Ipsilateral

of the same side

18

Contralateral

of the opposite side

19

What type of x-rays are more likely to pass through?

High energy x-ray

20

What is more likely to absorb x-rays?

Higher atomic number (larger atoms)

21

What are microfilaments made of?

Actin Filaments- G-actin (free molecules in cytoplasm)- F-actin (polymerized in a filament) & ATPmake microvilli & stereocilia

22

What are microtubules made of?

Alpha & Beta tubulin protein subunits GTP dependent Functions: 1) intracellular transport (movement of vesicles & organelles2) Cell motility (cilia and flagella)/elongation and movement3) Mitotic Spindle (attachment of chromosomes & movement during cell division)4) Rigid intracellular skeleton5) Assemble & disassemble as cell need changes

23

Where is Loose (areolar) connective tissue found?

It's apart of connective tissue proper and it surrounding • muscles • nerves • blood vessels-- Contains more cells than collagen fibers

24

Where is dense regular tissue found?

– Tendons – Ligaments – CorneaIt's characterised by more collagen then cells

25

Where is irregular dense connective tissue found?

Dermis of skin, collagen fibers randomly oriented

26

What are fibroblast?

Principal cell of connective tissue, main cell involved in wound repair, Makes collagen, elastin, reticular fibers & complex carbs of ground substance

27

What are macrophages?

aka tissue histiocytes, are phagocytic cells derived from monocytes in bone marrow, look like kidney shaped cells (hard to identify), function is to ingest and breakdown foreign matter, they stimulate the immune response

28

What are mast cells?

they are oval and cytoplasm is filled w/ basophilic granules, store chemical mediators of inflammatory response, found in small blood vessels, capsules of organs and within organs near vessels, ABSENT from brain and spinal cord (protects from damage due to deem from allergic reactions)

29

Where do adipose cells differentiate from?

fibroblast & mesenchymal cells

30

Name two types of lymphocytes.

T lymp - cell-mediated immunity & b lymph production of antibodies (humeral immunity), B lymph can divide in presence of antigens

31

What are Plasma Cells?

derived from b lymph, limited migratory ability, lives 10-30 days, large cells, Ovoid and lots of basophilic cytoplasm, makes antibodies

32

Eosinophils, Monocytes and Neutrophils

migrate from blood to connective tissue in response to injury and inflammation (especially neutrophils followed by monocytes)

33

Basophils

basophilic granules - cytoplasm, release of histamine from basophilic grannies enhances vascular response to insect bites

34

Collagen Fibers

most abundant fibers in connective tissue, appear wavy, variable in lengths, stain easy w/ Eosin (acid dye)

35

Reticular Fibers

type III collagen, supporting frame work for cellular constituents of tissue and organs, form supporting storm in hemopoietic and lymphatic tissue (not thymus) ABUNDANT in lung and liver tissue

36

Elastic fibers

enables tissue to stretch and distend, are thinner than collagen, large amounts look yellowish, fibers are interwoven w/ collagen, prevents tearing

37

Ground Substance

occupies space b/w cells and fibers, mixture of fluid, adhesion proteins, proteoglycans, gel-like stuff, stains w/ PAS stain but is often lost in H&E preps, consist largely of PROTEOGLYCANS & HYALURONIN ACID, functions as glue, lubricant and barrier

38

What is Ehlers-Danlos type IV disease?

deficiency of type III collagen--rupture of arteries and intestines

39

Epithelial tissue is characterized by each of these traits, except that ____________.

A) it lacks blood vessels
B) it functions in secretion, absorption, and excretion
C) epithelial cells are loosely packed and have much intercellular material
D) it is anchored to a basement membrane

C) epithelial cells are loosely packed and have much intercellular material

40

Microvilli, which function to increase surface area, are more likely to be found in ____________ epithelium.

A) simple cuboidal
B) simple squamous
C) transitional
D) simple columnar

D) simple columnar

41

Epithelium that appears layered due to the varying levels at which nuclei are found in cells, but in reality is not layered, is _________________.

A) transitional epithelium
B) pseudostratified columnar epithelium
C) stratified squamous epithelium
D) stratified columnar epithelium

B) pseudostratified columnar epithelium

42

The outer layer of the skin is composed of ______________________.

A) transitional epithelium
B) pseudostratified columnar epithelium
C) stratified squamous epithelium
D) stratified columnar epithelium

C) stratified squamous epithelium

43

What type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder and is capable of distention?

A) stratified cuboidal epithelium
B) stratified squamous epithelium
C) transitional epithelium
D) stratified columnar epithelium

C) transitional epithelium

44

An exocrine gland that loses small parts of its cell bodies during secretion, as is the case for the mammary gland, is further classified as a(n) ____________ gland.

A) merocrine
B) apocrine
C) holocrine
D) endocrine

B) apocrine

45

Connective tissues are somewhat similar to epithelial tissues in all of these characteristics except ___________________.

A) they have abundant intercellular material B) they can usually reproduce themselves C) they often serve more than one function D) they occur throughout the body

A) they have abundant intercellular materia

46

What function do fibroblasts serve in connective tissue?

A) carry on phagocytosis
B) secrete heparin that prevents blood clotting
C) secrete proteins that become fibers in the connective tissue matrix
D) release histamine associated with allergies and inflammation

C) secrete proteins that become fibers in the

47

The type of cartilage found in intervertebral disks of the vertebral column is ________________.

A) hyaline cartilage B) elastic cartilage C) yellow cartilage D) fibrocartilage

D) fibrocartilage

48

Which muscle tissue is multinucleate, voluntary, and bears striations?

A) skeletal muscle
B) smooth muscle
C) multiunit smooth muscle
D) cardiac muscle

A) skeletal muscle

49

Neuroglial cells help neurons in each of these ways, with the exception of _______________.
A) supporting and binding nervous tissue B) carrying on phagocytosis
C) playing a role in cell-to-cell communications
D) transmitting nervous impulses

D) transmitting nervous impulses

50

Which of the following is not one of the four major types of tissues?

A) epithelial
B) connective
C) nervous
D) skeletal muscle

D) skeletal muscleFor FTM - know EmbryonicConnective tissue proper (loose & dense (irregular and regular))Specialzied-adipose-bone-blood-cartilage

51

The kidney tubules are lined with _____ epithelial cells.

A) columnar
B) cuboidal
C) squamous
D) ciliated

B) cuboidal

52

What type of tissue is found on the surface of the ovaries?

A) simple squamous
B) simple columnar
C) simple cuboidal
D) stratified epithelium

C) simple cuboidal

53

Connective tissue is complex because it has a variety of cells and a noncellular background called a_____ surrounding them.

A) collagen
B) elastin
C) mucous secretion
D) matrix

D) matrix

54

Which of these is not a connective tissue?

A) blood B) bone C) muscle D) cartilage

C) muscle

55

What type of tissue holds most organs together?

A) adipose
B) muscular
C) dense connective
D) loose connective

C) dense connective

56

The type of proteins that guide cells on the move in the bloodstream to their destination at a wound site are _____________.

A) cell adhesion molecules
B) desmosomes
C) gap junctions
D) tight junctions

A) cell adhesion molecules

57

In what part of the nucleus does ribosome production occur?

A) within nuclear pores
B) in the chromatin
C) in the area of the nucleolus
D) Ribosome production does not occur in the nucleus.

C) in the area of the nucleolus

58

During what phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?

A) mitosis
B) prophase of mitosis
C) G2 phase
D) S phase

D) S phase

59

Which types of genetic control normally hold mitosis in check?

A) oncogenes
B) cell adhesion molecules
C) tumor suppressor genes
D) epidermal growth factors

C) tumor suppressor genes

60

The _____ is a system of membranes designed to transport molecules within and out of cells.

A) vacuole
B) chromatin
C) nucleolus
D) endoplasmic reticulum

D) endoplasmic reticulum

61

Flagella can occur on the cells of the following except:

A) sperm B) kidneys C) intestine D) testes

C) intestine

62

Movement of molecules from low to high concentrations is _____.

A) facilitated diffusion
B) active transport
C) passive transport
D) dialysis

B) active transport

63

At which stages does the chromosome number double?

A) prophase B) metaphase C) interphase D) telophase

C) interphase

64

The process of _____ explains how embryonic cells become specialized and diverse.

A) mitosis B) meiosis C) interphase D) differentiation

D) differentiation

65

The main division process in the early embryo is _____.

A) mitosis B) meiosis C) karyokinesis D) metastasis

A) mitosis

66

Jacky is a 26 year old lady who has dysfunctional uterine haemorrhage and was asked to undergo a Papanicolaou test which was her first time. Which of the following would be the most appropriate position?

a) In the Lithotomic position which is lying down with knees fully extended and feet adducted with arms on her side.

b) In the fetal position which is body erect with feet together and upper limbs abducted and trunk hyper extended.

c) In the Lithotomic position which is supine with the buttocks at the edge of the table, hips and knees in a flexed position with feet separated and stabilized.

d) In an Ambulatory position which is lying down with the face directed downwards and feet together with upper limbs fully abducted.

e) In an Anatomical position which is body erect with lower limbs abducted and flexed at the knees.

c) In the Lithotomic position which is supine with the buttocks at the edge of the table, hips and knees in a flexed position with feet separated and stabilized.

67

Which of the following best describes the cell type that digests the extracellular matrix of bone?

A. Osteocyte B. Chondrocyte C. Osteogenic D. Osteoclast E. Osteoblast

D. Osteoclast

68

Which of the following best describes the structures that allow communication between osteocytes?

A. Volkmann's canals B. Nutrient foramen
C. Interstitial lamellae D. Canaliculi E. Haversian canals

D. Canaliculi

69

Which of the following best describes the most abundant class of plasma membrane lipid?

A. Cholesterol B. Glycolipid C. Phospholipid D. Glycoprotein E. Triglyceride

C. Phospholipid

70

Which of the following best describes a type of passive transport?

A. Exocytosis B. Pinocytosis C. Phagocytosis D. Facilitated diffusion E. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

D. Facilitated diffusion

71

Which of the following best describes the cytoskeletal component associated with desmosomes?

A. Actin filament B. Intermediate filament C. Microfilament D. Microtubule E. Centriole

B. Intermediate filament

72

Which of the following best describes the organelle that functions in the generation of adenosine triphosphate?

A. Endoplasmic reticulum
B. Golgi apparatus
C. Lysosome
D. Mitochondria
E. Peroxisome

D. Mitochondria

73

Which of the following best describes the type of epithelial tissue lining blood vessels?

A. Stratified cuboidal
B. Simple squamous
C. Simple columnar
D. Simple cuboidal
E. Stratified squamous - nonkeratinized

B. Simple squamous

74

Which of the following best describes the type of cell junction that functions to attach an epithelial cell to the basement membrane?

A. Adherens junction
B. Desmosome
C. Gap junction
D. Hemidesmosome
E. Tight junction

D. Hemidesmosome

75

Which of the following best describes the type of cell that functions to secrete the fibers and ground substance of the extracellular matrix?

A. Adipocyte B. Fibroblast C. Macrophage D. Mast cell E. Plasma cell

B. Fibroblast

76

Which of the following best describes the type of connective tissue found in ligaments?

A. Adipose B. Loose areolar C. Fibrocartilage
D. Dense regular E. Dense irregular

D. Dense regular

77

Which of the following best describes the cell type of the epidermis that functions in an immune response?

A. Keratinocyte B. Langerhans cell C. Mast cell D. Melanocyte E. Merkel cell

B. Langerhans cell

78

Which of the following best describes the skin gland that produces a holocrine secretion linked to acne?

A. Apocrine B. Ceruminous C. Eccrine
D. Sebaceous E. Sudoriferous

D. Sebaceous

79

Which of the following is an avascular tissue? 

a. bone
b. fibrocartilage
c. stratified squamous epitheliumd.
d. Both b and c are correct.e. All three types of tissue are avascular.

D. (both fibrocartilage and stratified squamous epithelium)

80

The two layers of a basement membrane are the: 

a. apical and basal layers.
b. parietal and visceral layers.
c. lamina propria and epithelial layers.
d. avascular and vascular layers.
e. basal lamina and reticular lamina.

E. Basal lamina and reticular lamina

81

What type of tissue lines the mouth and present on the outer surface of the skin?

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

82

Where are cadherins found?

This transmembrane protein is found in adherens & desmosomes junctions.

83

Which cell junction contain plaque, adense layer of proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches both to membrane proteins and to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton?  

Gap Junction
Tight Junction
Adherens Junction
Desmosome
Hemidesmosome

Adherens, Hemidesmosome, and Desmosomes

84

What type of tissue lines blood vessels?

Endothelium

85

Hollow organs belonging to systems that do not open to the outside of the body are lined with a _____________________ membrane.

Serous Membrane

86

_____________derived from a B lymphocyte;produces antibodies as part of an immune response

Plasma Cells

87

______________ large, branched cell; secretesthe extracellular matrix of connective tissues

Fibroblast Cells

88

________________ located along the walls ofblood vessels; secretes histamine, which dilates blood vessels during inflammation

Mast Cells

89

______________ all cells attached to the basement membrane, not all of which reach the surface of tissue

Pseudostratified columnar

90

Which cell is primarily involved in wound repair?

Fibroblast

91

All of the following can diffuse through a protein channel except ______________.Organic moleculesInorganic moleculesHydrophilic moleculesPolar molecules

Organic molecules (ex: glucose)

92

What is the function of stereocilia?

Stereocilia are not cilia but long, hairlike microvilli arranged in several rows of graded height. Stereocilia increase the surface area for thereabsorption of degenerated sperm.

93

What constitutes the hypodermis? LymphocytesHistocytesKeratinocytesAdipocytes

D. Adipocytes. The hypodermis is the subcutaneous layer under the dermis and is where adipocytes are found.

94

Merkel Cells are found in which layer of skin?Stratum CorneumStratum LicudumStratum GranulosumStratum SpinosumStratum Basale

Stratum Basale

95

Which cell produces lamellar granules? KeratinocytesMelanocytesMerkel CellsLangerhans Cells

Keratinocytes produce lamellar granules, which release a water-repellent sealant that decreases water entry and water loss and inhibits the passage of foreign materials.

96

Langerhan cells are found in which layer of the epidermis?Stratum CorneumStratum LucidiumStratum GranulosumStratum SpinosumStratum Basale

Stratum Spinosum

97

Which layer of skin will be prevalent on the soles of your feet and stain eosinphilically?Stratum CorneumStratum LucidumStratum GranulosumStratum SpinosumStratum Basale

The soles of your feet and palms of your hand have thick layers of skin. In the thick layers of skin, you’ll find Stratum Lucidum which is a part of Stratum Corneum. Using an H&E stain, the stratum lucidum region stains eosinphilically.

98

__________________ layer of the dermis is characterized by blood capillaries, meissner corpuscles and free nerve endings that detect touch.

Papillary Layer

99

Describe each layer and the types of cell found in the layer

Stratum Corneum: Keratinized cellsStratum Lucidum: Disrupted organells and nucleusStratum Granulosum: Kerathyalin granules with filaggrin precursor proteinsStratum Spinosum: Langerhans CellsStratum Basale: Extensive cell junctions, stem cells, Merkel Cells, Melanocytes**Keratinocytes are found in all layers

100

Which of the following is not considered a function of bone tissue and the skeletal system?a. attachment site of muscles, tendons, and ligamentsb. storage of calcium and phosphorusc. formation of blood cellsd. support and protection of soft organs and tissuese. synthesis of vitamin D

e. synthesis of vitamin D

101

Haversian canals contain:a. high concentrations of calcium saltsb. blood vesselsc. osteocytesd. articular cartilagee. the epiphyseal plate

Blood Vessels

102

The thin columns of bone that form an irregular lattice in spongy bone are called:a. osteons b canaliculic. lacunae d. Volkmann’s canalse. trabeculae

E. trabeculae

103

Increased osteoblast cell activity would have what effect on bone tissue?a. reduced bone mass b. osteopeniac. osteomyelitis d. increased bone masse. Two of the above

d. increased bone mass

104

The flat bones of the skull develop by intramembranous ossification. (T/F)

TRUE

105

thin layer of hyaline cartilage at end of a long bone

Articular Cartilage

106

region of mature bone where diaphysis joins epiphysis

Metaphysis

107

covering over bone to which ligaments and tendons attach

Fibrous Periosteum

108

a layer of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of a growing bone

Epiphyseal Plate

109

lining of the medullary cavity; contains osteogenic cells and osteoblasts

Endosteum

110

directs cellular activities by means of genes located here

nucleus

111

sites of protein synthesis; may occur attached to ER or scattered freely in cytoplasm

ribosomes

112

system of membranous channels providing pathways for transport within the cell and surface areas for chemical reactions; may be rough or smooth

endoplasmic reticulum

113

stacks of cisternae; involved in packaging and secretion of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and lipoproteins

Golgi complex

114

may release enzymes that lead to autolysis of the cell

lysosomes

115

similar to lysosomes, but smaller; contain the enzyme catalase

peroxisome

116

called “powerhouses of the cell” because ATP production occurs within them

mitochondria

117

part of cytoskeleton; peripherally located in cytoplasm; involved with cell migration and contraction

microfilaments

118

part of cytoskeleton; give shape to cell; found in flagella, cilia, centrioles, and mitotic spindle

microtubules

119

help organize mitotic spindle used in cell division

centrosomes

120

long, hairlike structures that help move an entire cell

flagella

121

short, hairlike structures that move particles over cell surface

cilia

122

time during mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell

anaphase

123

the result of reproductive cell division

gametes

124

time during mitosis when chromosomes uncoil into chromatin, the mitotic spindle breaks up, and the nuclearenvelope appears

telophase

125

spherical bodies that function in producing ribosomes

nucleoli

126

time during interphase when a cell is duplicating organelles and cytosolic components, but not DNA

G1 phase

127

cells that contain 23 pairs of chromosomes

diploid cells

128

members of a chromosome pair, one inherited from each parent

homologs

129

time during mitosis when the nuclear envelope disappears, chromatin thickens into distinct chromosomes, and mitotic spindle forms

prophase

130

proteins that form the core around which DNA wraps in chromatin

histones

131

time during interphase when DNA replication occurs

S phase

132

the genetically programmed death of certain cells

apoptosis

133

time during mitosis when chromatids line up on the metaphase plate of the mitotic spindle

metaphase

134

Which means of active transport does the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) use to enter white blood cells?

a. osmosis
b. facilitated diffusion
c. receptor-mediated endocytosis
d. filtration
e. exocytosis

c. receptor-mediated endocytosis

135

Cytokinesis is:

a. a passive form of transmembrane transport.
b. how macrophages engulf bacteria.
c. the separation of chromatid pairs during metaphase.
d. the division of the cytoplasm during somatic cell division.
e. the development of flagella on sperm.

d. the division of the cytoplasm during somatic cell division.

136

As a result of somatic cell division, each of the two cells produced has:

a. the haploid (n) number of chromosomes.
b. twice as many chromosomes as the original cell.
c. the diploid (2n) number of chromosomes.
d. exactly the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
e. two of the above.

e. two of the above.c. the diploid (2n) number of chromosomes.d. exactly the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.

137

Division of the nucleus during somatic cell division is called:

a. apoptosis
b. mitosis
c. meiosis
d. metastasis
e. metaphase

b. mitosis

138

The extracellular fluid filling the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissues is called _____________.

interstitial fluid

139

The plasma membrane is composed of two main chemical components: a bilayer of ___________ and protein.

(phospho)lipids

140

Clathrin-coated pits participate in a membrane transport process _______________ called .

receptor-mediated endocytosis

141

Reproductive cell division consists of a special two-step process of _______________ division called .

meiosis

142

The connective tissue best designed to resist pulling forces in various directions is:

a. fibrocartilage.
b. bone.
c. dense regular connective tissue.
d. dense irregular connective tissue.
e. areolar connective tissue.

d. dense irregular connective tissue.

143

Which statement best describes connective tissue?

a. usually contains a large amount of extracellular matrix
b. always arranged in a single layer of cells
c. primarily concerned with secretion
d. cells always very closely packed together
e. is avascular

a. usually contains a large amount of extracellular matrix

144

A gland that secretes its product into a duct is referred to as a(n) ______________ gland.

exocrine

145

Membrane proteins called connexins form tunnels called connexons in the type of cell junction known as a(n) _______________ .

gap junction

146

The three types of fibers that strengthen and support the extracellular matrix of connective tissues are _________________fibers, _________________ fibers, and ___________________fibers.

collagen, elastic, reticular

147

Hollow organs belonging to systems that do not open to the outside of the body are lined with a ___________________ membrane.

serous

148

lines inner surface of the stomach and intestine

simple columnar epithelium

149

avascular mature type of connective tissue that occurs as three main types

cartilage

Three types:
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Fibrocartilage
3. Elastic cartilage

150

lines urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra

transitional epithelium

151

forms fasciae and dermis of skin

dense irregular connective tissue

152

has cells that are specialized for triglyceride storage

adipose tissue

153

all cells attached to the basement membrane, not all of which reach the surface of tissue

pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

154

subcutaneous tissue containing several kinds of cells and all three fiber types

areolar connective tissue

155

(h) lines the mouth; present on the outer surface of the skin

stratified squamous epithelium

156

(j) strong tissue found in the lungs; can recoil back to itsoriginal shape after being stretched

simple squamous epithelium

157

Periosteal arteries enter a bone through:

a. haversian canals
b. lacunae
c. canaliculi
d. Volkmann’s canalse. trabeculae

d. Volkmann’s canals

158

The flat bones of the skull develop by intramembranous ossification. (T/F)

True

159

Canaliculi are microscopic canals running longitudinally through bone. (T/F)

False (Central canals are microscopic canals running longitudinally through bone.)

160

Bones do not have a nerve supply. (T/F)

False (Bones do have a nerve supply.)

161

A fracture hematoma is a mass of fibrocartilage that bridges the broken ends of the bones. (T/F)

20. False (A fracture hematoma is a blood clot that bridges the broken ends of the bones.)

162

The organic extracellular matrix of bone tissue is secreted by osteoblasts. (T/F)

TRUE

163

Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone deposition outpaces bone resorption. (T/F)

False (Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposition.)

164

Osteoarthritis is an infection of bone often caused by bacteria, usually Staphylococcus aureus. (T/F)

False (Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone often caused by bacteria, usually Staphylococcus aureus.)

165

What's the difference between chondroblasts and chondrocytes?

Both are mature types of connective tissue. Chondroblast produce and chondrocytes maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

166

(T/F) Cartilage provides the epiphyseal plates that allow for the growth of the skeleton after birth

TRUE

167

This cartilage is the most abundant in the body and is the weakest of the three. It's chondrocytes are in lacunae audit's collagen fibres are thin not visible.

Hyalin Cartilage (Think glassy appearance)

168

This cartilage has it's chondrocytes scattered among thick bundles of collagen fibres in the extracellular matrix

Fibrocartilage (Strongest of the three)

169

This cartilage is found in the trachea, bronchus, larynx, epiglottis and ends of ribs.

Hyaline

170

This cartilage is found in articular disk (intervertebral, symphysis, pubic, meniscus, and TMJ)

Fibrocartilage

171

This cartilage is not covered by perichondrium

Fibrocartilage

172

This cartilage has it's chondrocytes located in a threadlike network of elastic fibres in the extracellular matrix.

Elastic Cartilage

173

This cartilage is found on the external part of the ear, and the tip of your nose.

Elastic Cartilage

174

Hyaline Cartilage mainly grows by what type of growth?

Interstitial Growth

175

Appositional growth occurs in all cartilage except ?

Fibrocartilage and articular cartilage

176

With regards to osteogenesis, which ossification is mainly flat bones?

intramembranous

177

With regards to osteogenesis, which ossification is mainly long bones?

endochondral ossifaction

178

Which of the following best describes the most abundant class of plasma membrane
lipid?

A. Cholesterol
B. Glycolipid
C. Phospholipid
D. Glycoprotein
E. Triglyceride

C. Phospholipid

179

Which of the following best describes a type of passive transport?

A. Exocytosis
B. Pinocytosis
C. Phagocytosis
D. Facilitated diffusion
E. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

D. Facilitated diffusion

180

Which of the following best describes the cytoskeletal component associated with
desmosomes?

A. Actin filament
B. Intermediate filament
C. Microfilament
D. Microtubule
E. Centriole

B. Intermediate filament

181

Which of the following best describes the type of epithelial tissue lining blood vessels?

A. Stratified cuboidal
B. Simple cuboidal
C. Simple columnar
D. Stratified squamous - nonkeratinized
E. Simple squamous

E. Simple squamous

182

Which of the following best describes the type of connective tissue found in ligaments?

A. Adipose
B. Loose areolar
C. Fibrocartilage
D. Dense regular
E. Dense irregular

D. Dense regular

183

Which of the following best describes the skin gland that produces a holocrine secretion linked to acne?

A. Apocrine
B. Ceruminous
C. Eccrine
D. Sebaceous
E. Sudoriferous

D. Sebaceous

184

Which blood cell is the first responder to bacterial infection?

a) Basophil
b) Neutrophil
c) Lymphocye
d) Monocyte
e) Eosinophil

b) Neutrophil

185

During contraction, skeletal muscle is held to the bone by tendons. Which of the following statements regards tendons?

a) They contain regularly arranged elastic fibers
b) They contain regularly arranged reticular fibers
c) They contain irregularly arranged collagen fibers
d) They contain irregularly arranged reticular fibers
e) They contain regularly arranged collagen fibers

e) They contain regularly arranged collagen fibers

186

What is the function of desmosomes?

a) They connect cells to other cells
b) They prevent movement of particles between cells
c) They allow molecules to move between cells
d) They connect cells to the basement membrane
e) They increase surface area for reabsorption

a) They connect cells to other cells

187

The tissue that lines the capillaries of sweat glands is made up of which type of cell?

a) Columnar cell
b) Transitional cell
c) Cuboidal cell
d) Squamous cell
e) Fibroblast

d) Squamous cell