Flashcards in Lectures 7 & 8-Psychotherapy Deck (19):
Describe the basis & aims of psychodynamic psychotherapy?
Based on idea that unconscious conflicts are repressed and cause difficulty (insight-oriented);
Aim: Making unconscious -> conscious & Understanding conflicts/behaviors;
Describe the basis & aims of interpersonal psychotherapy?
Based on idea that problematic attachments early in life predispose one to develop disorders that are expressed through troubled interpersonal relationships in present;
Aim: Correct interpersonal difficulties by focusing on current relationships
Describe the aims of family systems psychotherapy?
Based on the idea that an identified patient reflects a dysfunction in the whole family system
Aim: Help improve family’s relational health; the whole family is the “patient”
Describe the aims of group therapy psychotherapy?
Used to treat people with common experiences, a particular disorder, or interpersonal difficulties.
Allows members to learn skills, discuss own feelings, as well as provide feedback and support to others
What is behavioral therapy
Relieve symptoms by unlearning maladaptive behaviors
Techniques based on classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Define classical and operant conditioning.
Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its antecedents and consequences, while classical conditioning is maintained by conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which are elicited by antecedent conditions.
What is reinforcement in operant conditioning?
Reinforcer: Any stimulus event that increases the probability that the operant behavior will occur again
What is positive and negative reinforcement?
Positive Reinforcer: Stimulus that strengthens the response if it follows that response (chocolate)
Negative Reinforcer: An unpleasant stimulus that if removed strengthens the response that removes the stimulus (yelling)
Fixed Ratio (FR): ?
Variable Ratio (VR): ?
Fixed Interval (FI): ?
Variable Interval (VI): ?
Fixed Ratio (FR): Fixed number of responses required for reinforcement
Variable Ratio (VR): Number of responses required for reinforcement varies (gambling)
Fixed Interval (FI): Fixed set of time must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement (paycheck)
Variable Interval (VI): Time interval that must elapse before next opportunity for reinforcement varies (paycheck every week or every 4 months)
TEST QUESTION! If you want to keep behavior going on across time, the _______ schedules of reinforcement are the best. The ______ schedules are not as consistent across time.
STEP question: parent yells at kid, what is going on. Positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement, punishment or we cant tell?
We cant tell because we need to see the behavior afterwards.
What is punishment? What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
Punishment: The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one following some behavior
In punishment, the behavior we mean to correct DECREASES. If behavior goes up it cannot be punishment.
In negative reinforcement, the behavior INCREASES (avoiding kupiec)
Punishment does not tell you how to behave, it only tells you you shouldn’t do something (avoiding speeding in cop heavy zones).
Positive punishment (_____ unpleasant) = punishment 1
Negative punishment (______ pleasant) = penalty
What is systematic desensitization & flooding/ implosion?
Systematic desensitization: The patient visualizes a series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed
Flooding / implosion: Direct exposure without the possibility of avoidance / escape (instead of desentizing with pics of bad clowns from least bad to worst we just go to the worst one in flooding-implosiong)
Aversive condition: Classical conditioning principles are used to associate physical or psychological _____ with undesired behaviors (antabuse)
Self Monitoring: maintain detailed ____ of daily activities; used to establish antecedents/consequences
Stimulus Control: _______ of environmental cues that maintain or elicit behavior(s) (smoking not allowed in certain locations)
What is cognitive therapy?
Treatment aims to replace presumed distorted appraisals (driven by schemas) with more adaptive appraisals
Cognitive therapy = remove bad thoughts & replace with good thoughts. Problems come from how you think about things. Break things down with patient into situations, thoughts, and feelings.