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Flashcards in Leg Muscles Deck (101)
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1

What are the flexors of the femur/thigh (at hip joint)?

illacus and psoas major, rectus femoris, sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, pectineus, adductor longus and brevis

2

What are the extensors of the femur/thigh?

gluteus maximus, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris (long head), adductor magnus (ischial part)

3

What are the adductors of the femur/thigh?

adductors longus, brevis, and magnus, gracilis

4

What are the abductors of the femur/thigh?

gluteus medius and minimus, tensor fasciae latae

5

What are the medial rotators of the femur?

gluteus minimus, gluteus medius (anterior fibers)

6

What are the lateral rotators of the femur?

gluteus maximus, sartorius, obturator internus, superior gemellus, obturator externus, quadratus femoris, inferior gemellus, piriformis

7

What is the action and innervation of the gluteus maximus?

extends and laterally rotates the hip; maintains knee extension via the iliotibial tract

inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2)

*think walking up stairs

8

What is the action and innervation of the gluteus medius?

abducts and medially rotates hip (inserts on posterolateral surface of greater trocanter of femur); tilts and stabilizes pelvis on one side while opposite side is off ground while walking

superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

9

What is the action and innervation of the gluteus minimus?

abducts and medially rotates hip. Even more important for stabilizing pelvis

superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1)

10

What type of gait can result by lesion to the superior gluteal nerve? What muscles are involved?

Trendelenburg gait pattern- the weakened abductor muscles allow the pelvis to tilt down on the opposite side

caused by weakness of the abductor muscles of the lower limb, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus

11

What is the action and innervation of the tensor fascia lata?

maintains knee extension (thus assisting the gluteus maximus) and abducts the hip

inserts into the iliotibial tract

superior gluteal nerve (L4, 5, S1)

12

What is the action and innervation of the piriformis?

laterally rotates and stabilizes the hip

inserts medial aspect of greater trocanter of femur

anterior primary rami of S1, S2

13

What is the action and innervation of the superior gemellus?

laterally rotates and stabilizes the hip

inserts medial aspect of greater trocanter of femur

nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2)

14

What is the action and innervation of the obturator internus?

laterally rotates and stabilizes the hip

inserts medial aspect of greater trocanter of femur

nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2)

15

What is the action and innervation of the inferior gemellus?

laterally rotates and stabilizes the hip

inserts medial aspect of greater trocanter of femur

nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1)

16

What is the action and innervation of the quadratus femoris?

laterally rotates and stabilizes the hip

nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1)

17

What muscles make up the hamstring?

biceps femoris, semitendinosis, semimembranosus

18

What innervates the muscles of the hamstring?

all except the short head of the biceps are innervated by the tibial nerve

short head of the biceps is innervated by the common fibular nerve

19

Where does the long head of the biceps femoris cross as compared to the short head?

long head crosses both the hip and the knee joint while the short head only crosses the knee joint

20

What is the action and innervation of the biceps femoris?

Flexes and laterally rotates the knee; Long head will extend the hip

Inserts at styloid process of fibular head, lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle

Long head: tibial portion of sciatic nerve
Short head: common peroneal/fibular portion of sciatic nerve
(both L5, S1)

21

What is the action and innervation of the semitendinosis?

flexes and medially rotates the knee. Extends hip.

inserts at upper medial shaft of tibia

tibial potion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1)

22

What is the action and innervation of the semimembranosus?

flexes and medially rotates the knee. extends hip

inserts at the medial condyle of the tibia and fascia over popliteus and oblique popliteal ligament

tibial portion of the sciatic nerve (L5, S1)

23

which of the hamstrings muscles is the most medial? most lateral?

semimembranosus is most medial and biceps femoris is most lateral

24

what two muscles of the body have tendons that enter a joint?

semimembranosus inserts into capsule around knee joint

biceps brachiii at elbow

25

What are the flexors of the tibia and fibula (at the knee)?

semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris (long head and short head), gracilis, sartorius, politeus, gastrocnemius

26

What are the extensors of the tibia and fibula?

quadriceps femoris

27

what muscles make up the quadriceps femoris?

vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermediua, rectus femoris

28

what is the only muscle of the quadriceps femoris to cross both the hip joint and the knee joint?

rectus femoris

29

What are the lateral rotators of the tibia and fibula?

gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, tensor fasciae latae

30

What are the medial rotators of the tibia and fibula?

popliteus (unlocks extended knee), semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis, sartorius