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What is the legislation governing radiation protection?

The Ionising Radiations Regulations (revised) 2017


What should all practices have in regards to radiation protection?

Written local radiation rules and system of work which should be displayed in the designated x-ray room


What are the main principles associated with radiation protection?

Radiography should ONLY be undertaken if there is definite clinical justification for the use of the procedure.

Exposure of personnel should be kept to a minimum

Personal monitoring of staff involved with radiation to ensure dose limits are not exceeded


Describe the RPS (Radiation Protection Supervisor)

A listed Veterinary Nurse or Veterinary Surgeon employed in the Practice whose responsibility it is to ensure that radiography is carried out safely and in accordance with local rules and associated system of work.


Describe the RPA (Radiation protection Advisor)

A suitably qualified person holding a certificate of competence, NOT employed by the Practice responsible for periodically visiting the Practice and inspecting/giving advice regarding the aspects of radiation protection. They are usually medical physicists although holders of the Diploma in Veterinary Radiology who have undertaken appropriate further training can also act in this capacity.


How far should you stand from the primary beam?

2 metres


The controlled area must be...

clearly labelled and red warning light displayed


What lights should an x-ray machine have?

When the machine is switched on and being supplied by electricity.

When exposure is taking place.


Who should a X-ray fault be reported to?



What are the two types of dosemeters?

Film badge (blue holder)
Thermoluminescent crystal (orange holder)


Who supplies dosemeters?

National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB)


How long should practices keep records of dosemeter print-outs?

Minimum 2 years


What protective clothing is available against radiation?




Thyroid guards


What equipment should be worn when handling processing chemicals?



Face mask


How should waste processing chemicals be disposed of?

Placed into original container and collected by authorised person


When did the ionising radiation regulation 2017 come into effect?

1 January 2018


What governs radioactive isotopes?

Radioactive Substances Act 1993


Where can licences for the use of radioactive isotopes be obtained?

Environment Agency

One for keeping and using and another for accumulation and disposal


Why is it important to have a health and safety policy?

protect employers

protect employees

protect work experience students

provide a safe working environment

protect clients and their animals


Name some regulations and acts which relates to health and safety

Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 (1999)

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002)

Control of Pollution (Special Waste) Regulations 1988, Collection and Disposal of Waste Regulation 1992, Environmental Protections Act 1990

Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR)


What does the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) do?

oversee and encourage health and safety


What is the role of Health and Safety Executives (HSE)?

enforcement body of the HSC.


What is the aim of H&S legislation?

prevent accidents and protect personnel from risks within the work place.


What are the employers responsibilities under the Health and Safety at Work Act?

written health and safety policies if more than 5 employees

induction training

supervision and training of inexperienced staff

safe working environment

“local rules”


What are the employee's responsibilities under the Health and Safety at Work Act?

ensure they work in a safe manner and also consider the safety of themselves and others

respect health and safety

co-operate with the employer

not interfere with anything provided for health and safety

keep appropriate vaccinations up to date


What is the role of risk assessments?

Identify the hazard

Identify the personnel at risk

Assess the risks

Implement control measures

Inform/train staff

Monitor and review

Maintain written records


Describe COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health)

Introduced to manage and control the risks associated with hazardous substances

Includes all pharmaceutical products and chemicals

All employers and self employed persons must make assessments of all potential hazards and risks that could occur from such substances

All employers are required to provide adequate control measures to risk associated with these.


What are the three categories under RIDDOR (Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations)?

major or fatal accidents

‘three day’ accidents

dangerous occurrences and near misses


Name some H&S legislation which surrounds Veterinary Practice?

Control of Pollution (Special Waste) Regulations 1988

Collection and Disposal of Waste Regulation 1992

Environmental Protections Act 1990


What are the different categories of hazardous waste?

cytotoxic and cytostatic pharmaceuticals

infectious waste (viable micro-organisms or toxins)

sharps contaminated with blood or pharmaceuticals

photographic chemicals