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Flashcards in Lesson 1 Deck (90)
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31

Incorrect Negation of:

-If something is an apple, then it is a fruit
- A -----> B

If something is not an apple, then it is not a fruit

-A (not) ----> B (not)

32

Incorrect Reversal of:

-If something is an apple, then it is a fruit
- A -----> B

If something is a fruit, then it is an apple

-B ----> A

33

Contrapositive of:

-If something is an apple, then it is a fruit
- A -----> B

If something is not a fruit then it is not an apple

B (not) ----> A (not)

34

Incorrect Negation

Incorrect Negation

35

Incorrect Reversal

formed by reserving both terms in a given statement

36

Contrapositive

formed by reversing AND negating both terms of a given statement

37

Incorrect Negation of:

-A ----> B

A (not) ----> B (not)

38

Incorrect Reversal of:

-A ----> B

B ----> A

39

Contrapositive of:

-A ----> B

B (not) ----> A (not)

40

Incorrect Negation of:

-A ----> B (not)

A (not)----> B

41

Incorrect Reversal of:

-A ----> B (not)

B (not) ----> A

42

Contrapositive of:

-A ----> B (not)

B ----> A (not)

43

Incorrect Negation of:

-A (not) ----> B

A ----> B (not)

44

Incorrect Reversal of:

-A (not) ----> B

B ----> A (not)

45

Contrapositive of:

-A (not) ----> B

B (not) ----> A

46

Incorrect Negation of:

-A (not) ----> B (not)

A ----> B

47

Incorrect Reversal of:

-A (not) ----> B (not)

B (not) ----> A (not)

48

Contrapositive of:

-A (not) ----> B (not)

B ----> A

49

Contrapositive of P -----> Q and R

Q (not) or R (not) ----> P (not)

50

Contrapositive of P -----> Q or R

Q (not) and R (not) ----> P (not)

51

Contrapositive of P and Q -----> R

R (not) ----> P (not) or Q (not)

52

Contrapositive of P or Q -----> R

R (not) ----> P (not) and Q (not)

53

Positive Argument Structure

P: X ----> Y

P: "X"
__________

C: "Y"

54

Contrapositive Argument Structure

P: X -----> Y

P: "Y" (not)
_________

C: "X" (not)

55

Incorrect Negation Argument Structure

P: X ----> Y

P: "X" (not)
__________

C: "Y" (not)

(Invalid)

56

Incorrect Reversal Argument Structure

P: X ----> Y

P: "Y"
__________

C: "X"

(Invalid)

57

3 Common Permutations of the Transitive Property

P: A -----> B P: A -----> B P: A -----> B

P: B -----> C P: C -----> D P: C ----> D

P: C -----> D P: B -----> C

P: C (not) -----> B (not)
___________ __________ _________

C: A -----> D C: A -----> D C: A ----> D

58

The If Formula

The part of the statement that is introduced by if constitutes the sufficient condition. The rest of the statement constitutes the necessary condition.

59

The If Formula

If the lake freezes, then the swans will
migrate

LF -----> SM

60

The If Formula

The president will not be reelected if the economy does not improve.
EI -----> PR