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Flashcards in Lesson 11 Deck (59)

It's your birthday; let's go to a restaurant

Es tu cumpleaños; vamos a un restaurante

restaurant - el restaurante


I am going to read the restaurant's menu

Voy a leer el menú del restaurante

menu - el menú


There's not much order in my tiny apartment

No hay mucho orden en mi apartamento pequeñito

order (stability, organization) - el orden. Do not confuse this with la orden, which refers to a command or request


I am going to ask for an order of chicken

Voy a pedir una orden de pollo

order (command, request) - la orden. Do not confuse this with el orden, which refers to stability or organization


The waitress is going to go for our food

La mesera va a ir por nuestra comida

waiter, waitress - el mesero, la mesera. In Spain, a waiter is referred to as un camarero


I am going to ask for a pitcher of water

Voy a pedir una jarra de agua

pitcher - la jarra


I am very thirsty; I am going to ask for a glass of water

Tengo mucha sed, voy a pedir un vaso de agua

glass (for drinking) - el vaso


Raquel wants a cup of very hot coffee

Raquel quiere una taza de café muy caliente

cup, mug - la taza


Marcos and I are outside of the restaurant. Where are you?

Marcos y yo estamos afuera del restaurante, ¿Dónde estás tú?

outside - afuera (de)


I am inside the restaurant, next to a tall, blonde woman

Estoy adentro del restaurante, al lado de una mujer alta y rubia

inside - adentro (de)


We are going to a place that I do not know

Vamos a un lugar que no conozco

place - el lugar


Alicia is tall and dark-skinned and is seated next to Ricardo

Alicia es alta y morena y está sentada al lado de Ricardo

seated - sentado. Note that sentado is the past participle of the verb sentarse, a verb which we will learn later on. Also note that past participles agree in number and in gender with the nouns that they describe


We are seated at the back of the restaurant

Estamos sentados al fondo del restaurante

at the back of - al fondo de


Roberto is seated in the back

Roberto está sentado atrás

in back - atrás


Julia? She is behind Natalia

¿Julia? Está detrás de Natalia

behind - detrás de


I have an apple in my hand

Tengo una manzana en la mano

hand - la mano. Note that mano is actually a feminine noun. Also remember that in Spanish, you do not use the possessive when referring to body parts since it is assumed that they already belong to the person in question (i.e. Escribo con la mano not *Escribo con mi mano*)


She makes the cake by hand

Ella hace el pastel a mano

by hand - a mano


My cousin is seated to my right

Mi primo está sentado a mi derecha

right - derecha. Note that derecha can only mean '"right" in terms of directions. You cannot say *Ella es derecha* to mean "She is right"


You are right, Margarita is very pretty

Tienes razón, Margarita es muy bonita

to be right - tener razón. Note that tener razón literally means "to have reason"


He is blond and short and is seated to our right

Es rubio y bajo y está sentado a la derecha de nosotros

on the right of - a la derecha de


I believe in women's rights

Creo en los derechos de la mujer

rights - los derechos


Antonio does not write with his left hand

Antonio no escribe con la mano izquierda

left - izquierda


My house is on the left of Pepe's house

Mi casa está a la izquierda de la casa de Pepe

on the left of - a la izquierda de


We write with our left hand because we are left-handed

Escribimos con la mano izquierda porque somos zurdos

left-handed - zurdo


Is your sister on the right side of Guillermo?

¿Está tu hermana a la mano derecha de Guillermo?

on the right/left side/hand - a mano derecha/izquierda


The restaurant is behind the mountain

El restaurante está detrás de la montaña

mountain - la montaña


My grandfather lives beyond the mountains

Mi abuelo vive más allá de las montañas

beyond - más allá de. "The Great Beyond" is often referred to in Spanish as El Más Allá


Do you know if the kids are leaning against the wall?

¿Sabes si los niños están contra la pared?

against - contra


Carlos orders without a menu

Carlos pide sin menú

without - sin


This essay is well-written

Este ensayo está bien escrito

written - escrito. Note that escrito is the past participle of escribir


I am about to go out to eat with my friends

Estoy por salir a comer con mis amigos

to be about to - estar por. Note that in this sense, por indicates that an action is about to happen


I will walk through the streets of Spain

Voy a caminar por las calles de España

through, along, around, by - por. Note that in this sense, por is used to express movement.


We will study for two days

Vamos a estudiar por dos días

for (time, duration) - por. Note that in this sense, por denotes the time or duration of something


ten percent

diez por ciento

per - por. Note that por is sometimes used to indicate "per" as well as velocity, frequency and proportion (i.e. Este cuarto mide cinco por cinco "This room measures five by five")


Juan works for student rights

Juan trabaja por los derechos de estudiantes

in favor of - por. Note that in this instance, por is used to show support for something, usually a cause or an organization


That book is written by Gabriel García Márquez

Ese libro está escrito por Gabriel García Márquez

by - por. Note that in this example, por introduces the agent of an action after a passive verb


I will travel by car to my grandmother's house

Voy a viajar por carro a la casa de mi abuela

by (transportation) - por. Note that in this case, por indicates the means of transportation


Thank you for your help

Gracias por tu ayuda

for (gratitude) - por


Fernanda will cook on behalf of my mother, who is sick

Fernanda va a cocinar por mi mamá que está enferma

on behalf of - por. Note that por is used to indicate doing something "on behalf of" someone


Marta does not go out because of the snow

Marta no sale por la nieve

because of - por. Note that por can be used interchangeably with a causa de


It is very cold. That's why nobody is outside

Hace mucho frío. Por eso nadie está afuera

that's why, therefore - por eso. Note that por eso literally translates to "because of that"


What are the uses of the preposition por?

  • to indicate movement (through, along, around, by, about)
  • to express time and duration (during, for) 
  • to indicate velocity, frequency and proportion (per)
  • to show support for something (for, in favor of)
  • to introduce an agent after a passive verb (by)  
  • to indicate a means of transportation (by)          
  • to express gratitude or an apology (for)      
  • to express cause or reason (because of)   
  • to do something for someone (on behalf of)


We read this book in order to learn faster

Leemos este libro para aprender mas rápido

in order to, for the purpose of - para. Note that para is used to indicate the purpose of something and often replaces the English word "to"


This book is for you (ud)

Este libro es para usted

directed to - para. Note that in this case, para means "for the benefit of", "directed to", "the recipient of" when followed by a noun or a pronoun


This summer Marco will go to Spain

Este verano, Marco va a ir para España

to (direction) - para. Note that although you can use a instead of para, many Spanish-speakers use para when referring more to the journey than the destination


I want this for tomorrow

Quiero esto para mañana

for, by (specific time) - para


For a child, he speaks well

Para un niño, él habla bien

for (contrast) - para. Note how para is used to express a contrast from something that is expected


What are the uses of the preposition para?

  • to indicate purpose  (in order to, for the purpose of)
  • to show who is the recipient of something (for, directed to)
  • to express direction of a specific place (to)
  • to indicate a specific time (for, by)
  • to express an unexpected contrast (for)


  • Ella le dio 100 pesos para el pan
  • Ella le dio 100 pesos por el pan

  • In the first example (para), she gave him money so that he could buy the bread
  • In the second example (por), she gave him money in exchange for the bread


  • Andan para el parque
  • Andan por el parque

  • In the first example (para), they are strolling in the direction of the park
  • In the second example (por), they are strolling through the park


  • Él es muy activo para su edad
  • Él es muy activo por su edad

  • In the first example (para), we are probably talking about an old person who is active in spite of his age
  • In the second example (por), we are probably talking about a child who is active because of his age


Why do you study French?

¿Por qué estudias francés?

French - francés


Because it is required

Porque es un requisito

requirement - un requisito


For what purpose do you study Spanish?

¿Para qué estudias español?

for what purpose? - ¿Para qué?


I'm learning Spanish so that I can travel in Spain

Estoy aprendiendo español para poder viajar en España

to travel - viajar


This food is made by my grandmother

Esta comida está hecha por mi abuela

made - hecho. Note that hecho is the past participle of the verb hacer


Marcos will buy a gift for María

i.e. he will give María a gift

Marcos va a comprar un regalo para María

present, gift - el regalo


Marcos will buy a television for María

i.e. María is unable to buy it, so he will do it for her

Marcos va a comprar una televisión por María

television - la televisión, el televisor, la tele. Note that televisor literally means "television set", but in some countries televisión or la tele is used for both the appliance and the programs 


We are going to watch TV tomorrow

Vamos a mirar la tele mañana

to watch - mirar. In some countries, they say ver ("to see") when referring to watching television