Lesson 23 Grammar Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 23 Grammar Review Deck (99):
1

Give the five vowel letters and their long sounds in Latin.

a - /ah/; e - /ā/; i - /ē/; o - /oh/; u - /ōō/ (food)

2

Give two Latin words that have the long sound of the five vowels.

glória Jesus

3

Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are soft before

e, i, ae, oe

4

Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are hard before

a, o, u, consonants

5

In Latin and English, hard c has the sound of ..

/k/

6

Soft c has the sound of ___ in English and ___ in Latin.

/s/; /ch/

7

In Latin, gn is pronounced like ___. Give two examples.

/ny/; pugno (I fight), magnus (large)

8

Give the names, from left to right, of the last three syllables of a Latin word.

antepenult; penult; ultima

9

The accent is on the ___ unless the ___ is marked.

penult; antepenult

10

Verb families are called ___.

Conjugations

11

How many conjugations are there? Name them.

four; first, second, third, fourth

12

Give the six attributes of a Latin verb.

conjugation, person, number, tense, voice, mood

13

Give the three grammar persons.

first person, second person, third person

14

The first person is the person ___. The second person is the person ___. The third person is the person ___.

speaking; spoken to; spoken about

15

Give the two grammar numbers.

singular, plural

16

How many Latin tenses are there? Name them.

six; present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect

17

The stem vowel of the 1st conjugation is __.

a

18

Give the names for the three forms of the English present tense.

simple present, progressive present, emphatic present

19

In English I praise is the ___ present, I am praising is the ___ present, and I do praise is the ___ present.

simple; progressive; emphatic

20

In Latin imperfect means ___.

not finished

21

The imperfect tense sign is ___.

ba

22

The imperfect tense is used to describe an ___ or ___ action.

ongoing, repeated, habitual; interrupted

23

What English helping verbs translate the imperfect tense?

were, was

24

The two basic parts of a sentence are ___. 

subject and predicate

25

The subject is ___.

who or what the sentence is about

26

The predicate tells ___

what the subject is or does

27

What is the Sentence Pattern #1?

subject + verb

28

What English helping verb translates the Latin future tenses?

will

29

The three tenses that make up the present system are ___.

present, imperfect, future

30

The present system is built on the ___.

present stem

31

What are the principal parts? How many are there?

The forms that provide the stems needed to conjugate a verb in all its tenses. There are usually four principal parts.

32

What is the name of the 2nd principal part?

infinitive

33

The infinitive ending for all 1st- conjugation verbs is ___.

-are

34

How do you find the present stem?

Drop -re from the infinitive

35

The English infinitive is written with the particle ___ before the verb.

to

36

The to be verb shows ___, not ___.

existence; action

37

Give the English forms of the to be verb.

am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

38

Give the regular endings for the principal parts of 1st-conjugation verbs.

-o -are -avi -atus

39

What is the Sentence Pattern #2?

subject + verb + direct object

40

Something that completes the action of the verb is a ___.

complement

41

What is the first complement in this text?

the complementary infinitive

42

In Latin grammar, perfect means ___.

finished

43

The perfect tense describes what kind of action?

a one-time action completed in the past

44

The perfect tense is built on the ___ stem.

perfect

45

How do you find hte perfect stem?

Drop -i from the 3rd principal part.

46

Give three translations for vocavi.

I called, I have called, I did call

47

What English helping verbs translate the perfect tense?

have, has, did

48

The pluperfect tense is built on the ___ stem.

perfect

49

The pluperfect tense describes what kind of action?

a past action completed prior to another past action

50

What English helping verb translates the pluperfect tense?

had

51

The pluperfect tense endings are identical to ___.

the imperfect tense of sum

52

The future perfect tense is built on the ___ stem.

perfect

53

The future perfect tense describes ___.

an action in the future completed prior to another action in the future

54

What English helping verbs translate the future perfect tense?

will have

55

The future perfect tense endings are identical to ___ except for the ___.

the future tense of sum; 3rd person plural

56

The tenses of the perfect system are ___ and they are built on the ___.

perfect, pluperfect, future perfect; perfect stem

57

Verb familes are called ___, and noun families are called ___.

conjugations; declensions

58

How many declensions are there? Name them.

five; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th

59

Give the four attributes of nouns.

declension, gender, number, and case

60

The three genders are ___.

masculine, feminine, neuter

61

Nouns that name male or female persons or animals have ___ gender. Give three English examples.

natural; sister, brother, father, queen, king, uncle, etc.

62

Nouns that name non-living things have ___ gender.

grammatical

63

To what does the case of a noun refer?

the job of a noun in a sentence

64

Name the cases in order.

nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative

65

What is the subject case?

nominative

66

What is the direct object case?

accusative

67

What is the indirect object case?

dative

68

What is the possessive case?

genitive

69

What is the in/by/with/from case?

ablative

70

What is the to/for case?

dative

71

What is the of case?

genitive

72

The genitive singular of a 1st-declension noun always ends in ___.

-ae

73

1st-declension nouns are usually what gender?

feminine

74

Three important exceptions to the 1st-declension feminine rule are ___.

poeta, nauta, agricola

75

Latin does not have the English articles ___.

a, an, the

76

Give three translations for the Latin noun mensa.

table, a table, the table

77

The genitive singular of a 2nd-declension noun always ends in ___.

-i

78

2nd-declension --us nouns are usually ___ in gender.

masculine

79

Name the two subgroups of the 2nd declension, and give their gender.

1.) -us nouns with masculine gender; -um nouns with neuter gender

80

Verbs have ___ endings and nouns have ___ endings.

tense, personal; case

81

2nd-declension -um nouns are always ___ in gender.

neuter

82

The declension a noun belongs to is determend by the ___.

genitive singular

83

The natural gender rule ___ all other gender rules.

trumps

84

What is the neuter rule?

nominative and accusative endings are the same; nominative and accusative plural ending is -a

85

The subject and verb must agree in ___.

person and number

86

What is an adjective?

An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun

87

In Latin an adjective must agree with its noun in ___, but not ___.

gender, number, case; declension

88

Usually an adjective of ___ precedes a noun, and an adjective of ___ follows the noun.

quantity; quality

89

Counting numbers are called ___.

cardinal

90

Numbers which indicate the order of things in a series are called ___.

ordinal

91

What is Sentence Pattern #3?

subject + linking verb + predicate adjective

92

What is Sentence Pattern #4?

subject + linking verb + predicate nominative

93

The genitive singular of a 3rd-declension noun always ends in ___.

-is

94

How can you know the gender of a 3rd-declension noun?

You have to memorize it.

95

Masculine and feminine nouns of the 3rd declension have ___ case endings.

the same

96

How do you find the stem of a Latin noun?

Drop the genitive singular ending.

97

The usual word order for an English sentence is ___.

subject - verb- direct object

98

How many of the seven basic sentence patterns have complements?

six

99

What are the three complements covered in this text?

direct object, predicate adjective, predicate nominative

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