Give the five vowel letters and their long sounds in Latin.
a - /ah/; e - /ā/; i - /ē/; o - /oh/; u - /ōō/ (food)
Give two Latin words that have the long sound of the five vowels.
Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are soft before
e, i, ae, oe
Always in Latin and usually in English, c, g, and sc are hard before
a, o, u, consonants
In Latin and English, hard c has the sound of ..
Soft c has the sound of ___ in English and ___ in Latin.
In Latin, gn is pronounced like ___. Give two examples.
/ny/; pugno (I fight), magnus (large)
Give the names, from left to right, of the last three syllables of a Latin word.
antepenult; penult; ultima
The accent is on the ___ unless the ___ is marked.
Verb families are called ___.
How many conjugations are there? Name them.
four; first, second, third, fourth
Give the six attributes of a Latin verb.
conjugation, person, number, tense, voice, mood
Give the three grammar persons.
first person, second person, third person
The first person is the person ___. The second person is the person ___. The third person is the person ___.
speaking; spoken to; spoken about
Give the two grammar numbers.
How many Latin tenses are there? Name them.
six; present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, future perfect
The stem vowel of the 1st conjugation is __.
Give the names for the three forms of the English present tense.
simple present, progressive present, emphatic present
In English I praise is the ___ present, I am praising is the ___ present, and I do praise is the ___ present.
simple; progressive; emphatic
In Latin imperfect means ___.
The imperfect tense sign is ___.
The imperfect tense is used to describe an ___ or ___ action.
ongoing, repeated, habitual; interrupted
What English helping verbs translate the imperfect tense?
The two basic parts of a sentence are ___.
subject and predicate
The subject is ___.
who or what the sentence is about
The predicate tells ___
what the subject is or does
What is the Sentence Pattern #1?
subject + verb
What English helping verb translates the Latin future tenses?
The three tenses that make up the present system are ___.
present, imperfect, future
The present system is built on the ___.
What are the principal parts? How many are there?
The forms that provide the stems needed to conjugate a verb in all its tenses. There are usually four principal parts.
What is the name of the 2nd principal part?
The infinitive ending for all 1st- conjugation verbs is ___.
How do you find the present stem?
Drop -re from the infinitive
The English infinitive is written with the particle ___ before the verb.
The to be verb shows ___, not ___.
Give the English forms of the to be verb.
am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
Give the regular endings for the principal parts of 1st-conjugation verbs.
-o -are -avi -atus
What is the Sentence Pattern #2?
subject + verb + direct object
Something that completes the action of the verb is a ___.
What is the first complement in this text?
the complementary infinitive
In Latin grammar, perfect means ___.
The perfect tense describes what kind of action?
a one-time action completed in the past
The perfect tense is built on the ___ stem.
How do you find hte perfect stem?
Drop -i from the 3rd principal part.
Give three translations for vocavi.
I called, I have called, I did call
What English helping verbs translate the perfect tense?
have, has, did
The pluperfect tense is built on the ___ stem.
The pluperfect tense describes what kind of action?
a past action completed prior to another past action
What English helping verb translates the pluperfect tense?
The pluperfect tense endings are identical to ___.
the imperfect tense of sum
The future perfect tense is built on the ___ stem.
The future perfect tense describes ___.
an action in the future completed prior to another action in the future
What English helping verbs translate the future perfect tense?
The future perfect tense endings are identical to ___ except for the ___.
the future tense of sum; 3rd person plural
The tenses of the perfect system are ___ and they are built on the ___.
perfect, pluperfect, future perfect; perfect stem
Verb familes are called ___, and noun families are called ___.
How many declensions are there? Name them.
five; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th
Give the four attributes of nouns.
declension, gender, number, and case
The three genders are ___.
masculine, feminine, neuter
Nouns that name male or female persons or animals have ___ gender. Give three English examples.
natural; sister, brother, father, queen, king, uncle, etc.
Nouns that name non-living things have ___ gender.
To what does the case of a noun refer?
the job of a noun in a sentence
Name the cases in order.
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative
What is the subject case?
What is the direct object case?
What is the indirect object case?
What is the possessive case?
What is the in/by/with/from case?
What is the to/for case?
What is the of case?
The genitive singular of a 1st-declension noun always ends in ___.
1st-declension nouns are usually what gender?
Three important exceptions to the 1st-declension feminine rule are ___.
poeta, nauta, agricola
Latin does not have the English articles ___.
a, an, the
Give three translations for the Latin noun mensa.
table, a table, the table
The genitive singular of a 2nd-declension noun always ends in ___.
2nd-declension --us nouns are usually ___ in gender.
Name the two subgroups of the 2nd declension, and give their gender.
1.) -us nouns with masculine gender; -um nouns with neuter gender
Verbs have ___ endings and nouns have ___ endings.
tense, personal; case
2nd-declension -um nouns are always ___ in gender.
The declension a noun belongs to is determend by the ___.
The natural gender rule ___ all other gender rules.
What is the neuter rule?
nominative and accusative endings are the same; nominative and accusative plural ending is -a
The subject and verb must agree in ___.
person and number
What is an adjective?
An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun
In Latin an adjective must agree with its noun in ___, but not ___.
gender, number, case; declension
Usually an adjective of ___ precedes a noun, and an adjective of ___ follows the noun.
Counting numbers are called ___.
Numbers which indicate the order of things in a series are called ___.
What is Sentence Pattern #3?
subject + linking verb + predicate adjective
What is Sentence Pattern #4?
subject + linking verb + predicate nominative
The genitive singular of a 3rd-declension noun always ends in ___.
How can you know the gender of a 3rd-declension noun?
You have to memorize it.
Masculine and feminine nouns of the 3rd declension have ___ case endings.
How do you find the stem of a Latin noun?
Drop the genitive singular ending.
The usual word order for an English sentence is ___.
subject - verb- direct object
How many of the seven basic sentence patterns have complements?
What are the three complements covered in this text?
direct object, predicate adjective, predicate nominative
What are the two kinds of direct objects covered in this text?
1.) complementary infinitive; 2) direct object in the accusative case
The usual word order for a Latin sentence is ___.
subject - direct object - verb
What kind of verb is never followed by a direct object?
the verb sum, the to be verb
The genitive singular of the 4th declension always ends in ___.