Flashcards in Lesson 3 Deck (40):
An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations.
It is the “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?” that people ask themselves and that guide their decisions and actions.
An individual’s self-concept can be described by three characteristics:
Self-concept - Complexity
Refers to the number of distinct and important roles or identities that people perceive about themselves.
Self-concept - Consistency
High internal consistency exists when most of the individual’s self-perceived roles require similar personality traits, values, and other attributes. Low consistency occurs when some self-perceptions require personal characteristics that conflict with characteristics required for other aspects of self.
Self-concept - Clarity
The degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept.
A person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have others perceive him/her favour- ably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important.
Four processes that shape self-concept and motivate a person’s decisions and behaviour:
- social self (social identity)
A person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept.
This self-evaluation is mostly defined by three elements: self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control.
The extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves.
A person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favourable situation to complete a task successfully.
Locus of control
A person’s general belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events.
Social self (social identity)
Everyone has a self-concept that includes at least a few identities (manager, parent, golfer, etc.) and each identity is defined by a set of attributes. These attributes highlight both the person’s uniqueness (personal identity) or association with others (social identity).
Personal identity (also known as internal self-concept)
Consists of attributes that make us unique and distinct from people in the social groups to which we have a connection.
Social identity theory
A theory stating that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.
The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us.
The process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information.
The process of screening out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions and to more readily accept confirming information.
Organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory.
Knowledge structures that we develop to describe, explain, and predict the world around us.
The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category.
Stereotyping - Categorization
Social identity is a comparative process, and the comparison begins by categorizing people into distinct groups. By viewing someone (including yourself) as a Nova Scotian, for example, you remove that person’s individuality and, instead, see him or her as a prototypical representative of the group called Nova Scotians. This categorization then allows you to distinguish Nova Scotians from people who live in, say, Ontario or Alberta.
Stereotyping - Homogenization
To simplify the comparison process, we tend to think that people within each group are very similar to each other. For instance, we think Nova Scotians collectively have similar attitudes and characteristics, whereas Ontarians collectively have their own set of characteristics. Of course, every individual is unique, but we tend to lose sight of this fact when thinking about our social identity and how we compare to people in other social groups.
Stereotyping - Differentiation
Along with categorizing and homogenizing people, we tend to assign more favourable characteristics to people in our groups than to people in other groups.51 This differentiation is motivated by self-enhancement because being in a “better” group produces higher self-esteem. Differentiation is often subtle, but it can escalate into a “good guy–bad guy” contrast when groups engage in overt conflict with each other. In other words, when out-group members threaten our self-concept, we are particularly motivated (often without our awareness) to assign negative stereotypes to them. Some research suggests that men have stronger differentiation biases than do women, but we all differentiate to some extent.
The perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behaviour or event is caused largely by internal or external factors.
Attribution Theory Rules
Internal Attribution - Behaviour is attributed to personal factors
External Attribution - Behaviour is attributed to situational factors
Did this person act this way in this situation in the past?
Yes (high consistency) - Internal Attribution
Yes (high consistency) - External Attribution
Does this person act this way in other situations?
Yes (low distinctiveness) - Internal Attribution
No (high distinctiveness) - External Attribution
Do other people act this way in this situation?
Yes (high consensus) - Internal Attribution
No (low consensus) - External Attribution
The tendency to attribute our favourable out- comes to internal factors and our failures to external factors.
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that per- son’s behaviour.
The perceptual process in which our expectations about another per- son cause that person to act more consistently with those expectations.
The Self-Fulfilling- Prophecy Cycle
1. Supervisor forms expectations about the employee
2. Supervisor’s expectations affect his/her behaviour toward the employee
3. Supervisor’s behaviour affects the employee’s ability and motivation (self-confidence)
4. Employee’s behaviour becomes more consistent with the supervisor’s initial expectations
4 back to 1 - repeat
Positive organizational behaviour
A perspective of organizational behaviour that focuses on building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them.
A perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colours our perception of other characteristics of that person.
A perceptual error in which we overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own.
A perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people based on the first information we receive about them.
A perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates our perception of others.
Three potentially effective ways to improve perceptions include:
- awareness of perceptual biases
- meaningful interaction
A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feed- back to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.
A theory stating that the more we interact with someone, the less prejudiced or perceptually biased we will be against that person.
A person’s understanding of and sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others.