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Flashcards in 1.4 Lesson Deck (40)
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1
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to be
(for transitory situations)

estar

to be - estar. Note that while ser is used to describe a state of permanence (e.g. Soy mujer), estar is used to describe transitory situations (e.g. Estoy feliz

2
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Are you close to the building?

¿Estás cerca del edificio?

you are - estásEstás ("you are") is derived from the irregular verb estar ("to be") 

3
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How are you?

¿Cómo estás?

how? -¿cómo?. The phrase ¿Qué tal? is also sometimes used to mean "How are you?". (The word tal by itself means "such")

4
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You are sad

Tú estás triste

sad - triste

5
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I am not sad

Yo no estoy triste

I am - estoy. Note how estar is used in this situation, rather than ser, since your state of being sad is transitory and not permanent

6
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I am at home

Yo estoy en casa

at home - en casa

7
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I am tired

Yo estoy cansado

tired - cansado

8
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She is tired

Ella está cansada

he/she is - está

9
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He is happy

Él está contento/feliz

happy - contento, feliz. Feliz is generally used to describe a greater degree of joy than contento.

10
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You (ud) are sick

Usted está enfermo

sick - enfermo

11
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We are not sick

Nosotros no estamos enfermos

we are - estamos

12
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They are happy

Ellos están contentos

they are - están

13
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They (fem) are awake

Ellas están despiertas

awake - despierto

14
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You (uds) are busy

Ustedes están ocupados

busy - ocupado

15
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You (vosotras) are not awake

Vosotras no estáis despiertas

you (vosotros) are - estáis.  Note that like nosotras, vosotras is the feminine version of the pronoun

16
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TO BE (estar)

  • I am
  • You are
  • He/She is
  • We are
  • You are
  • They are

ESTAR

  • Yo estoy
  • Tú estás
  • Él/Ella/Ud está
  • Nosotros estamos
  • Vosotros estáis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds están

17

What are the uses of the verb ser?

  • place of origin, nationality
  • occupation
  • possession
  • inherent and essential qualities
  • religious or political affiliation
  • the material something is made of
  • the hour, date, and day
  • where an event is taking place

18

What are the uses of the verb estar?

  • a state or condition when used with adjectives
  • geographic locations
  • progressive tenses
  • many idiomatic expressions

19
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Rafa and Miguel are clever students

Rafa y Miguel son estudiantes listos

clever - listo

20
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Is Julio still teaching at the same school?

¿Todavía está enseñando Julio en la misma escuela?

still - todavía

21
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Clara is busy; she's not ready

Clara está ocupada; no está lista

ready - listo. Note that when used with ser, listo means "clever". When used with estar, it means "ready"

22
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The building is not safe

El edificio no es seguro

safe - seguro

23
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I am sure that Monica is awake

Estoy seguro de que Monica está despierta

sure - seguro. Note that when used with ser, seguro means "safe." When used with estar, it means "sure" and it must match the gender of the person who is "sure"

24
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She is very tired because she runs every day

Ella está muy cansada porque corre todos los días

because - porque

25
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Rodrigo is weak because he is sick

Rodrigo está débil porque está enfermo

weak - débil

26
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Roberto and I are dizzy because we are sick

Roberto y yo estamos mareados porque estamos enfermos

dizzy - mareado

27
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I am bored

Estoy aburrido

bored - aburrido

28
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Marta is bored of reading

Marta está aburrida de leer

verb + of - verbo + de.  Note that in Spanish you use the infinitive form of the verb when the verb is preceded by a conjugated verb

29
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Mariana and Rafael are bored from so much studying

Mariana y Rafael están aburridos de tanto estudiar

so much - tanto

30
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He is boring

Él es aburrido

Note that by using ser rather than estar, we can change the word "bored" to mean "boring." Ser denotes the permanent characteristic that he is a boring person.