Lesson 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4 Deck (40):
1

to be
(for transitory situations)

estar

to be - estar. Note that while ser is used to describe a state of permanence (e.g. Soy mujer), estar is used to describe transitory situations (e.g. Estoy feliz

2

Are you close to the building?

¿Estás cerca del edificio?

you are - estásEstás ("you are") is derived from the irregular verb estar ("to be") 

3

How are you?

¿Cómo estás?

how? -¿cómo?. The phrase ¿Qué tal? is also sometimes used to mean "How are you?". (The word tal by itself means "such")

4

You are sad

Tú estás triste

sad - triste

5

I am not sad

Yo no estoy triste

I am - estoy. Note how estar is used in this situation, rather than ser, since your state of being sad is transitory and not permanent

6

I am at home

Yo estoy en casa

at home - en casa

7

I am tired

Yo estoy cansado

tired - cansado

8

She is tired

Ella está cansada

he/she is - está

9

He is happy

Él está contento/feliz

happy - contento, feliz. Feliz is generally used to describe a greater degree of joy than contento.

10

You (ud) are sick

Usted está enfermo

sick - enfermo

11

We are not sick

Nosotros no estamos enfermos

we are - estamos

12

They are happy

Ellos están contentos

they are - están

13

They (fem) are awake

Ellas están despiertas

awake - despierto

14

You (uds) are busy

Ustedes están ocupados

busy - ocupado

15

You (vosotras) are not awake

Vosotras no estáis despiertas

you (vosotros) are - estáis.  Note that like nosotras, vosotras is the feminine version of the pronoun

16

TO BE (estar)

  • I am
  • You are
  • He/She is
  • We are
  • You are
  • They are

ESTAR

  • Yo estoy
  • Tú estás
  • Él/Ella/Ud está
  • Nosotros estamos
  • Vosotros estáis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds están

17

What are the uses of the verb ser?

  • place of origin, nationality
  • occupation
  • possession
  • inherent and essential qualities
  • religious or political affiliation
  • the material something is made of
  • the hour, date, and day
  • where an event is taking place

18

What are the uses of the verb estar?

  • a state or condition when used with adjectives
  • geographic locations
  • progressive tenses
  • many idiomatic expressions

19

Rafa and Miguel are clever students

Rafa y Miguel son estudiantes listos

clever - listo

20

Is Julio still teaching at the same school?

¿Todavía está enseñando Julio en la misma escuela?

still - todavía

21

Clara is busy; she's not ready

Clara está ocupada; no está lista

ready - listo. Note that when used with ser, listo means "clever". When used with estar, it means "ready"

22

The building is not safe

El edificio no es seguro

safe - seguro

23

I am sure that Monica is awake

Estoy seguro de que Monica está despierta

sure - seguro. Note that when used with ser, seguro means "safe." When used with estar, it means "sure" and it must match the gender of the person who is "sure"

24

She is very tired because she runs every day

Ella está muy cansada porque corre todos los días

because - porque

25

Rodrigo is weak because he is sick

Rodrigo está débil porque está enfermo

weak - débil

26

Roberto and I are dizzy because we are sick

Roberto y yo estamos mareados porque estamos enfermos

dizzy - mareado

27

I am bored

Estoy aburrido

bored - aburrido

28

Marta is bored of reading

Marta está aburrida de leer

verb + of - verbo + de.  Note that in Spanish you use the infinitive form of the verb when the verb is preceded by a conjugated verb

29

Mariana and Rafael are bored from so much studying

Mariana y Rafael están aburridos de tanto estudiar

so much - tanto

30

He is boring

Él es aburrido

Note that by using ser rather than estar, we can change the word "bored" to mean "boring." Ser denotes the permanent characteristic that he is a boring person.

31

You (ud) are very embarrassed

Usted está muy avergonzado

embarrassed - avergonzado

32

You (vosotros) are jealous

Vosotros estáis celosos

jealous - celoso

33

The student is angry with the teacher (fem.)

El estudiante está enojado con la maestra

angry - enojado

34

All of the students are happy to go to the university

Todos los estudiantes están felices de ir a la universidad

Note that the plural of feliz is felices. When forming the plural for nouns ending in -z, you must always change the z to a c

35

Paloma is sick, so she does not eat a lot

Paloma está enferma, entonces no come mucho

so, then - entonces

36

What is this thing?

¿Qué es esta cosa?

 

thing - la cosa

37

Carlos never goes to class, so the teacher is annoyed

Carlos nunca asiste a clase, entonces la maestra está molesta

 

annoyed - molesto

38

We do not study, so we are worried

Nosotros no estudiamos, entonces estamos preocupados

 

worried - preocupado

39

  • Who?
  • What?
  • Which?
  • When? 
  • How?
  • How many?
  • How much?
  • Where?

  • Who? - ¿Quién?
  • What? - ¿Qué?
  • Which? - ¿Cuál?
  • When? - ¿Cuándo? 
  • How? - ¿Cómo?
  • How many? - ¿Cuántos?
  • How much? - ¿Cuánto?
  • Where? - ¿Dónde?

 

40

I'm not ready yet

Todavía no estoy listo

not yet - todavía no. Do not confuse this with ya no, which means "not anymore"