Lesson 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting Servers Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson 4: Monitoring and Troubleshooting Servers Deck (55):
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1. What is a set of concepts and practices for managing information technology (IT) systems, IT services, IT development, and IT operations?
a) ITIL
b) ITWAN
c) HIPAA
d) Rainbow Books

Answer: a) ITIL

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Managing Information Technology
Explanation: The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and practices for managing IT systems, IT Service Management (ITSM), IT development, and IT operations. ITIL gives detailed descriptions of a number of important IT practices and provides comprehensive checklists, tasks, and procedures that any IT organization can tailor to its needs.

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2. In server management, which approach tries to prevent problems before they occur?
a) reactive
b) proactive
c) rolling
d) dynamic

Answer: b) proactive

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Managing Information Technology
Explanation: When managing your servers, you can take one of two approaches: proactive or reactive. Being proactive means that you are looking ahead and anticipating problems before they disable or degrade your server, service, or application.

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3. Which step in the troubleshooting methodology would you use to identify and document all symptoms of a problem?
a) discover the problem
b) evaluate system configuration
c) execute a plan
d) take a proactive approach

Answer: a) discover the problem

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Introducing Troubleshooting Methodology
Explanation: Discover the problem is the step used to identify and document problem symptoms. You can search technical information resources, such as Microsoft Knowledge Base (KB) articles, to determine whether the problem is a known condition.

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4. Which step do you need to check if any changes have been made to your system?
a) discover the problem
b) evaluate system configuration
c) execute a plan
d) take a proactive approach

Answer: b) evaluate system configuration

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Introducing Troubleshooting Methodology
Explanation: During the evaluate system configuration step, you ask the client or customer and check the system’s documentation to determine whether any hardware, software, or network changes have been made, including any new additions. Also check any available logs, including the Event Viewer.

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5. What program is used to get a quick view of what hardware and software is loaded on a computer?
a) msinfo32.exe
b) sysconf.exe
c) regedit.exe
d) rdc.exe

Answer: a) msinfo32.exe

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: System Information
Explanation: System Information (also known as msinfo32.exe) shows details about your computer’s hardware configuration, components, and software, including drivers. It was originally included with Windows to assist Microsoft support people in determining what a particular machine contains, especially when talking to end users.

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6. What program do you use to view the Windows logs?
a) rdc.exe
b) sysconf.exe
c) regedit.exe
d) Event Viewer

Answer: d) Event Viewer

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Using the Event Viewer
Explanation: One of the most useful troubleshooting tools is the Event Viewer MMC snap-in, which is essentially a log viewer. Whenever you have problems, look in the Event Viewer to see any errors or warning that may reveal what a problem is.

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7. What part of the boot-up process initializes hardware and finds an operating system to load?
a) POST
b) MBR boot
c) WinBoot
d) PXEBoot

Answer: a) POST

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Booting the System
Explanation: Every time you turn on a computer, it goes through the Power-On Self Test (POST), which initializes hardware and finds an operating system to load.

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8. In Windows Server, what main part of Windows is responsible for various system services and process and memory management?
a) WINLoad
b) HAL.DLL
c) NTOSKRNL.EXE
d) BOOTMGR

Answer: c) NTOSKRNL.EXE

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Booting the System
Explanation: NTOSKRNL.EXE is the main part of Windows known as the kernel. It is responsible for various system services and process and memory management.

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9. What is the first Windows file loaded during boot-up?
a) NTLDR
b) NTDetect.com
c) NTSOSKRNL.EXE
d) BOOTMGR

Answer: a) NTLDR

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Booting the System
Explanation: If the system is running Windows XP or Windows Server 2003, the first file loaded is the NT loader (NTLDR), which reads the boot.ini file to display the boot menu or to boot from a partition or volume.

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10. Which part of the disk contains NTLDR or BOOTMGR?
a) MBR
b) VBR
c) partition table
d) kernel volume

Answer: b) VBR

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Booting the System
Explanation: A volume boot record (VBR), also known as a volume boot sector or a partition boot sector, is a type of boot sector—stored in a disk volume on a hard disk, floppy disk, or similar data storage device—that contains code for booting an operating system such as NTLDR and BOOTMGR.

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11. Which file displays a boot menu displaying which operating system to boot on a server running Windows XP or Windows Server 2003?
a) NTOSKRNL.EXE
b) ntdetect.com
c) boot.ini
d) WINLoad

Answer: c) boot.ini

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Understanding Boot.ini
Explanation: The Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 NTLDR will read the boot.ini file to determine which operating system to load, even if your system only has one operating system. If your system has multiple operating systems, the boot.ini file can display a boot menu so that you can choose which operating system to load and automatically select a default operating system if one is not selected during boot-up.

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12. What stores the boot-time configuration data for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008?
a) NTOSKRNL
b) ntdetect
c) boot.ini
d) BCD

Answer: d) BCD

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: Understanding BCDEdit
Explanation: Boot Configuration Data (BCD) is a firmware-independent database for boot-time configuration data used by Microsoft’s Windows Boot Manager found with Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008. To edit the Boot Configuration, you typically use Bcdedit.exe.

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13. What boot option starts Windows with a minimal set of drivers and services?
a) Safe mode
b) Last Known Good Configuration
c) Directory Services Restore Mode
d) Debugging Mode

Answer: a) Safe mode

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Advanced Boot Menu
Explanation: Safe mode starts Windows with a minimal set of drivers and services. If you make a change to the system and Windows no longer boots, you can try safe mode.

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14. What mode starts Windows with the last registry and driver configuration that worked successfully?
a) Safe mode
b) Last Known Good Configuration
c) Directory Services Restore Mode
d) Debugging Mode

Answer: b) Last Known Good Configuration

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Understanding Advanced Boot Menu
Explanation: Last known good configuration starts Windows with the last registry and driver configuration that worked successfully, usually marked as the last successful logon.

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15. What tool do you use to help isolate a program that is giving you problems during boot-up?
a) sysinfo
b) msconfig
c) regedit
d) evtvwr

Answer: b) msconfig

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Using the System Configuration Tool
Explanation: The System Configuration (msconfig.exe) tool can help you identify problems that might prevent Windows from starting correctly. When a problem occurs, assuming you can successfully start and log on to Windows, you can open System Configuration and disable certain startup programs or services.

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16. What program allows you to view processor and memory utilization quickly?
a) Task Manager
b) Performance Monitor
c) System Information
d) Configuration Manager

Answer: a) Task Manager

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Performance
Explanation: Task Manager is one of the handiest programs you can use to take a quick glance at performance to see which programs are using the most system resources on your computer. You can see the status of running programs and programs that have stopped responding, and you can stop a program running in memory by using Task Manager.

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17. What should be the maximum consistent processor utilization?
a) 40%
b) 50%
c) 60%
d) 80%

Answer: d) 80%

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Performance
Explanation: Processor Time measures how busy the processor is. Although the processor may jump to 100% processor usage, the processor should not be above 80% most of the time. If it isn’t, you should upgrade the processor (using a faster processor or additional processors) or move some of the services to other systems.

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18. To protect against power fluctuations, every server should be protected by _______.
a) RAID
b) UPS
c) Teamed NICs
d) APM

Answer: b) UPS

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Introducing Fault-Tolerant Components
Explanation: An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is an electrical device consisting of one or more batteries to provide backup power when a power outage occurs.

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19. The best method to data recovery is __________.
a) backup
b) DFS
c) RAID
d) spare drives

Answer: a) backup

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Backups
Explanation: A backup, or the process of backing up, refers to making copies of data so that these copies can be used to restore the original after a data-loss event. They can be used to restore entire systems following a disaster or to restore small file sets that were accidentally deleted or corrupted. The best method for data recovery is back up, back up, back up!

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20. Which type of backup backs up only new and recently changed files since the last backup?
a) full backup
b) incremental backup
c) differential backup
d) copy backup

Answer: b) incremental backup

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Backups
Explanation: Full backups with incremental backups start with a full backup followed by several incremental backups. For example, once a week, you would perform a full backup on Friday night, which shuts off the archive attribute indicating that the files were backed up. Then any new files or changed files would have the archive attribute turned on. You would then perform an incremental backup Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday night, which only backs up new and changed files and shuts off the archive attribute.

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21. What program is used to fix a system that no longer boots running Windows Server 2003 R2?
a) Recovery console
b) Repair Center
c) bcdedit
d) DISM

Answer: a) Recovery console

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Performing Server Repair
Explanation: For computers running Windows Server 2003, you can use the Recovery console, a command-line tool that you can use to repair Windows if the computer does not start correctly. You start the Recovery console from the Windows Server 2003 CD, or at startup through the startup menu if you previously installed the Recovery console on the computer.

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22. In Windows Server 2008, what would you use instead of Recovery console?
a) Windows Backups
b) Shadow copies
c) Windows PE
d) Windows Fix tool

Answer: c) Windows PE

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Performing Server Repair
Explanation: For Windows Server 2008, you would use the WinPE disk instead of the Recovery console. Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) 3.0 is a minimal Win32 operating system with limited services, built on the Windows 7 kernel.

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Fill in the Blank
23.__________ is the overall effectiveness of how data moves through the system.

Answer: Performance

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Understanding Performance
Explanation: Performance is the overall effectiveness of how data moves through the system. Selecting the proper hardware (processor, memory, disk system, and network) is important to satisfy the expected performance goals. Without the proper hardware, hardware bottlenecks can limit the effectiveness of software.

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Fill in the Blank
24. ______________ allows users to retrieve previous versions of files and folders on their own.

Answer: Shadow copies

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Understanding Shadow Copies of Shared Folders
Explanation: Shadow copies allow users to retrieve previous versions of files and folders on their own, without requiring IT personnel to restore files or folders from backup media. Of course, you need to have sufficient disk space to store the shadow copies, at least 100 MB of free space.

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Short Answer
25. What are the steps to implement a new server, service, or application for your organization?

Answer: Collecting requirements, designing and planning, implementing, and managing and monitoring.

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: Managing Information Technology
Explanation: When you want to start using a server, service, or application, you should follow certain steps to implement it properly:
1. Collecting requirements
2. Designing and planning
3. Implementing
4. Managing and monitoring

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Short Answer
26. Why use a troubleshooting methodology?

Answer: To reduce the amount guesswork needed to troubleshoot and fix the problem in a timely manner

Difficulty: Medium
Section Reference: Introducing Troubleshooting Methodology
Explanation: The whole reason for using an effective troubleshooting methodology is to reduce the amount of guesswork needed to troubleshoot and fix the problem in a timely manner.
Microsoft Product Support Service engineers use the “detect method.”

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Short Answer
27. What six steps in Microsoft’s Troubleshooting Methodology are used by Product Support?

Answer:
1. Discover the problem.
2. Evaluate system configuration.
3. List or track possible solutions and try to isolate the problem by removing or disabling hardware or software components.
4. Execute a plan.
5. Check results.
6. Take a proactive approach.

Difficulty: Hard
Section Reference: Introducing Troubleshooting Methodology
Explanation: Microsoft Product Support Service engineers use the “detect method,” which consist of the following six steps:

1. Discover the problem: Identify and document problem symptoms, and search technical information resources such as Microsoft Knowledge Base (KB) articles to determine whether the problem is a known condition.

2. Evaluate system configuration: Ask the client or customer and check the system’s documentation to determine whether any hardware, software, or network changes have been made, including any new additions. Also check any available logs, including the Event Viewer.

3. List or track possible solutions and try to isolate the problem by removing or disabling hardware or software components: Consider turning on additional logging or running diagnostic programs to gather more information and test certain components.

4. Execute a plan: Test potential solutions and have a contingency plan if these solutions do not work or have a negative impact on the computer. Of course, you don’t want to make the problem worse, so if possible, back up any critical system or application files.

5. Check results: If the problem is not fixed, go back to track possible solutions.

6. Take a proactive approach: Document changes that you made along the way while troubleshooting the problem. Also notify the customer or client and document internal symptoms of the problem in case it happens in the future or in case those changes that fixed the problem affect other areas.

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Short Answer
28. What program gives you a detailed look at a system’s performance?

Answer: Performance Monitor

Difficulty: Easy
Section Reference: Using Performance Monitor
Explanation: Windows Performance Monitor is a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that provides tools for analyzing system performance. It is included in the Computer Management and Server Manager consoles and can be executed using perfmon. From a single console, you can monitor application and hardware performance in real time, specify which data you want to collect in logs, define thresholds for alerts and automatic actions, generate reports, and view past performance data in various ways.

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1. The ______ is the first 512-byte boot sector of a partitioned data storage device such as a hard disk.

MBR (Master Boot Record)

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2. The _____ is a simple text file that defines which operating system to load on Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 systems.

BOOT.INI

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3. The ______ starts Windows with a minimal set of drivers and servers.

Safe mode

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4. The ______ tool can be used to easily disable individual startup programs.

System Configuration

33

5. In Windows, virtual memory uses a ______ file.

Paging

34

6. ______ is the combining of network cards to provide fault tolerance.

Teaming

35

7. A ______ is a group of computers that work together as one virtual computer to provide fault tolerance or increased performance.

Cluster

36

8. The most common failover cluster is the______ cluster in which only one server is active at a time.

Active-Passive

37

9. In a cluster, an individual computer is known as a ______ .

Node

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10. A ______ is an electrical device to provide temporary power during power outages.

Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)

39

1. What publications include a set of concepts and practices for managing IT services, development, and operations?
a. Red book
b. IT Development Guide
c. ITIL core books
d. IT Transition Guidebook

c. ITIL core books

40

2. What tool is used to view the hardware and software loaded on a Windows server?
a. System Information
b. System Configuration
c. KB tool
d. POST

a. System Information

41

3. Where would you find NTLDR or BOOTMGR on a hard drive?
a. MBR
b. VBR
c. boot.ini
d. WINNT folder

b. VBR - volume boot record

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4. What determines which operating system should be loaded when running Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows Server 2008?
a. RAID
b. GUID
c. boot.ini
d. BCD

d. BCD - Boot Configuration Data

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5. You loaded a program and rebooted Windows. Unfortunately, Windows no longer boots. What should you try first?
a. Enable boot logging.
b. Load Last Known Good Configuration
c. Disable the boot.ini file.
d. Reinstall Windows.

b. Load Last Known Good Configuration

44

6. What program gives you a quick look at system performance and the processes that are running?
a. Task Manager
b. Performance Monitor
c. Resource Monitor
d. System Information

a. Task Manager

45

7. __________ is multiple computers configured as one virtual server to share the workload.
a. Network load balancing
b. Active-passive cluster
c. SAN cluster
d. Terminal server

a. Network load balancing

46

8. ___________ is making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data-loss event.
a. DFS
b. RAID
c. Backup
d. EMS

c. Backup

47

9. Which type of backup backs up all designated files and turns off the archive attribute?
a. Full
b. Differential
c. Incremental
d. Copy

a. Full

48

10. Which type of backup takes the longest to restore?
a. Full
b. Differential
c. Incremental
d. Copy

c. Incremental

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True / False
1. The best method for data recovery is backup.

True

50

True / False
2. Shadow copies are only available under older file systems.

False

51

True / False
3. To view Windows log, use the Log Viewer application.

False

52

True / False
4. 99.9999 availability means that a system can be down for 4.32 minutes a year.

False
99.9999% (“six nines”)
DOWNTIME PER YEAR: 31.5 seconds
DOWNTIME PER MONTH: 2.59 seconds


AVAILABILITY %: 99% 99.9% 99.99% 99.999% 99.9999%
DOWNTIME PER YEAR: 3.65 days 8.76 hours 52.6 minutes 5.26 minutes 31.5 seconds
DOWNTIME PER MONTH: 7.20 hours 43.2 minutes 4.32 minutes 25.9 seconds 2.59 seconds




53

True / False
5. Clusters nodes will protect against faulty power supplies, faulty processors, and faulty RAM.

True

54

Competency Assessment
Scenario 4-1: Using a Troubleshooting Methodology
Your computer does not boot. The computer has no lights and you hear no beeps. Whatwould the steps be in troubleshooting this problem?

First you need to identify and document the problem symptoms, which are pretty obvious since you turned the power button on and nothing happens. You would next evaluate system configuration, and you should likely find that nothing changed. Next, you would list or track possible solutions. This could be caused by the system not being plugged in, no power to the AC outlet where the server connects, faulty power supply, faulty motherboard or memory, or a short or power overload. You would check each component one by one, usually from easiest to hardest. After you try isolating or replacing each component, you then move on to the next one. After you find and fix the problem, document the changes and notify the customer or client of the problem and its fix.

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Competency Assessment
Scenario 4-2: Planning a Backup Strategy
You have several servers that all include important data that changes often. Unfortunately, when you try to back up these servers, it takes about 30 hours to complete. What would you recommend as a backup strategy?

It is obvious that you should back up daily since the data is important and changes often. You should perform a full back up on the weekends and differential back ups or incremental back ups daily. You could also isolate the programs and data and back up the data each night while backing up everything on the weekends.