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Flashcards in Lesson 6 Deck (29):
1

How many unreplicated chromosomes are in human gametes?

23

2

How many replicated chromosomes are in human cells at the end of meiosis I?

23

3

Mitosis is most closely related to what phase of meiosis and why?

Meiosis II, because the chromosomes line up in one line rather than across from each other and they have the same number of chromosomes in the beginning and the end

4

goals of meiosis

to create cells w half of the number of chromosomes as normal cells. aka gametes

5

the process of two gametes coming together is called...?

fertilization

6

how many division are there in meiosis?

2 (meiosis I & meiosis II)

7

Why did the pea plant work out so well for Gregor Mendel's experiments?

easy to artificially cross and to control self pollination, lots of offspring for a large sample size, clear dominance with traits

8

Genotypes

the two letters (EX: Gg)

9

Phenotypes

the physical trait/the amount of (EX: 4 Green)

10

How did the blending theory explain heredity?

hereditary information was stored in fluid in the blood of the parents and it would mix

11

What is an allele?

a form of a trait

12

What does the law of segregation state?

alleles of a trait will separate during the formation of gametes and each gamete will only have one allele

13

What is a heterozygote?

An organism that has both the dominant and recessive allele for a particular trait

14

Describe Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment

the traits of a gamete ("short" "yellow pods") do not influence each other during formation- they are independent

15

When is a dihybrid cross being used?

When two different traits are being crossed

16

What does autosomal refer to?

A non-sex chromosome

17

Describe the term 'autosomal dominant'

A person will have the condition as long as they have at least one dominant allele

18

Achondroplasia

autosomal dominant disorder that causes dwarfism

19

Brachydactyly

autosomal dominant disorder that causes shortened fingers and toes

20

What does it mean for someone to be a carrier of a autosomal recessive condition?

The carrier doesn't show any signs of the condition. But if they mate with another carrier (or someone who has the disorder) they can have children that have the disorder

21

Describe albinism and its effects

Autosomal recessive trait that is characterized by the absence of the pigment melanin

22

Describe cystic fibrosis and its effects

Autosomal recessive trait that blocks lung passages

23

If two albinos are crossed what's the probability that they'll have a non-albino offspring

0%

24

Define polygenic

A trait that is a combination of many genes

25

Describe the heterozygote of a codominant trait

will equally express both forms of the allele

26

Describe the heterozygous phenotype for incomplete dominance

a blend between the two expressions

27

Define pleiotropy

a single gene that effects several phenotypes

28

Define epitasis

genes that mask the expression of other genes

29

What does the term 'gene doping' mean?

When a person changes the make-up of their genes to improve their health or physical performance