Flashcards in Lesson 6 Deck (29):
How many unreplicated chromosomes are in human gametes?
How many replicated chromosomes are in human cells at the end of meiosis I?
Mitosis is most closely related to what phase of meiosis and why?
Meiosis II, because the chromosomes line up in one line rather than across from each other and they have the same number of chromosomes in the beginning and the end
goals of meiosis
to create cells w half of the number of chromosomes as normal cells. aka gametes
the process of two gametes coming together is called...?
how many division are there in meiosis?
2 (meiosis I & meiosis II)
Why did the pea plant work out so well for Gregor Mendel's experiments?
easy to artificially cross and to control self pollination, lots of offspring for a large sample size, clear dominance with traits
the two letters (EX: Gg)
the physical trait/the amount of (EX: 4 Green)
How did the blending theory explain heredity?
hereditary information was stored in fluid in the blood of the parents and it would mix
What is an allele?
a form of a trait
What does the law of segregation state?
alleles of a trait will separate during the formation of gametes and each gamete will only have one allele
What is a heterozygote?
An organism that has both the dominant and recessive allele for a particular trait
Describe Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
the traits of a gamete ("short" "yellow pods") do not influence each other during formation- they are independent
When is a dihybrid cross being used?
When two different traits are being crossed
What does autosomal refer to?
A non-sex chromosome
Describe the term 'autosomal dominant'
A person will have the condition as long as they have at least one dominant allele
autosomal dominant disorder that causes dwarfism
autosomal dominant disorder that causes shortened fingers and toes
What does it mean for someone to be a carrier of a autosomal recessive condition?
The carrier doesn't show any signs of the condition. But if they mate with another carrier (or someone who has the disorder) they can have children that have the disorder
Describe albinism and its effects
Autosomal recessive trait that is characterized by the absence of the pigment melanin
Describe cystic fibrosis and its effects
Autosomal recessive trait that blocks lung passages
If two albinos are crossed what's the probability that they'll have a non-albino offspring
A trait that is a combination of many genes
Describe the heterozygote of a codominant trait
will equally express both forms of the allele
Describe the heterozygous phenotype for incomplete dominance
a blend between the two expressions
a single gene that effects several phenotypes
genes that mask the expression of other genes