Flashcards in Lesson B10 - Nicotine Deck (55):
Nicotine is a ________________________ that is found in __________.
What are the 3 most psychoactive drugs used in society?
Nicotine, Caffeine, Alcohol
True or false? Nicotine has no therapeutic value?
When does nicotine have a therapeutic value?
In smoking cessation programs
How many deaths approximately each day is tobacco use related too?
When did the use of tobacco increase and why?
- From the 1940's-1970's
- Because it was though as "cool"
True or False? It is not nicotine which is responsible for the long-term effects of smoking, but other compounds found in tobacco and tobacco smoke.
Nicotine stimulates _______________ in the ___________________, including the ____________, producing increased psychomotor activity, cognitive function, attention and enhanced memory
Nicotinic receptors, Central nervous system, cerebral cortex
When nicotine stimulates the nicotinic receptors, central nervous system and cerebral cortex what does this cause?
- Increased psychomotor activity, cognitive function, attention and enhanced memory
What does large doses of nicotine cause?
In large doses, it can cause agitation, tremors and seizures
In the peripheral nervous system what does nicotine stimulate? What is the result?
- Sympathetic ganglia and thus drives the sympathetic nervous system
- Increase in hear rate an blood pressure
Nicotine has powerful ______________ and it is ________ in ________ products that is responsible for the _________.
reinforcing properties, nicotine, tobacco, dependence
Is nicotine from cigarette smoke rapidly absorbed?
- Nicotine is cigarettes are in very small particles and when inhaled these droplets are rapidly absorbed
How many % of nicotine is absorbed following "Normal Smoking"
True or False? Nicotine is available in gum and patches?
Name 3 ways other than smoking a cigarette that nicotine is absorbed?
Nicotine is absorbed as well, from the gastrointestinal tract, oral mucosa and across the skin (transdermal) (nicotine is available as a gum and as patches).
Nicotine is distributed throughout the body and __________________________
Rapidly penetrates to the brain
True or false? Nicotine cannot cross the placenta?
- It readily crosses the placenta and may have deleterious effects on the fetus.
What is the half life of nicotine in the body?
Nicotine is rapidly metabolized in the ________ and the metabolites are excreted in the ________
How is nicotine used in medical use and how is it administered?
- Only is smoking cessation programs
- Chewing gum or a transdermal patches
How dose the use of nicotine gum or transdermal patches work?
- Maintain the nicotine in the blood levels and satisfy the craving of the cigarette
- Allows the tapering of of nicotine
In a non-smoker how dose a few puffs affect them?
- Dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps
- The smoke may trigger coughing or gagging. These symptoms disappear in the chronic user.
Do effects of a user that only had a few puffs disappear in chronic users?
- Dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps dissapears
What are the affects of regular use of nicotinic products?
- Mild euphoria, enhanced arousal, increased ability to concentrate, a sense of relaxation, and of course, a reduction in the urge to smoke
- Nicotine may cause a small increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
- Nicotine may depress appetite.
True or false Nicotine may cause a small increase in heart rate and blood pressure and may depress appetite
True/False? Cigarette smoking is recognized as the major preventable cause of premature death in Canada.
What dose tobacco smoke contain?
Tobacco smoke contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, and thousands of other compounds, some of which are carcinogens
_____ of every _____ Canadians aged ___ who smoke, _____ will die from smoking-related diseases before the age of ___
1, 1000, 20, 500, 70
In Canada, ____ of deaths from all causes is attributable to cigarette smoking
The social and economic cost of smoking estimates range from _____________ per year in Canada.
$9.5 to $12.3 billion
What are the 2 components in cigarette smoke that cause cardiovascular disease?
Nicotine and carbon monoxide
How does carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke contribute to cardiovascular disease?
Carbon monoxide reduces the capacity of the red blood cells to carry oxygen.
What does nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarettes increase the likelihood of?
Both of these compounds increase the incidence of atherosclerosis (plaques in the vessel) and formation of thrombi (blood clots).
There is a _________ increase in risk of death due to cardiac causes in the smoker.
5- to 19-fold
In Canada, ________ people per year will die of smoking-related cardiovascular disease; this is ____of deaths due to all cardiac causes.
True or false? Lung disease is increased by smoking
What is are the symptoms of the smoker's syndrome
- Difficulty in breathing, wheezing, chest pain, congested lung, and increased lung infections.
In smokers there is an increased risk of __________ and other forms of ______________________
Emphezema, chronic obstructive lung disease
_______ of all cancers are estimated to be caused by cigarette smoke.
Cigarette smoke is known to increase the risk of what types of cancers?
Cancer of the lung, the oral cavity and throat, the bladder, and the uterus.
The effects of ___________ are also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer to the individual exposed to __________ (a non-smoker in the presence of smokers)
Passive smoke, Passive smoke
What is passive smoke?
A non-smoker in the presence of smokers
In children passive smoke increases the risk of:
bronchitis and pneumonia, asthma and sudden infant death syndrome.
True or False? Biological dependance in smokers is significant
- Biological tolerance does not appear to occur to any great extent.
Why do most smokers smoke?
To keep the nicotine in their blood levels in a certain range
What is the range than smokers try keep of nicotine in their blood
(30 to 40 nanograms/millilitre)
What dose the number of cigarettes smoked each day signify
- The amount that is necessary to keep the nicotine at a certain level
True or False? Smokers are in a state of nicotine withdrawal upon awakening in the morning?
Do Physical and psychological dependence occur with nicotine?
Yes they both do
What are the symptoms from withdrawal?
Irritability, restlessness, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, inability to concentrate, and an extreme urge to smoke.
What are the 2 withdrawal symptoms that may persist for months after stopping?
Inability to concentrate, and an extreme urge to smoke.
Nicotine is a _____________ and has a high degree of __________
powerful reinforcer, abuse liability
True or false? Health Canada and the Royal Society of Canada both state that tobacco products meet all the requirements of addicting substances.