Lesson121 Reparing broken hearts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson121 Reparing broken hearts Deck (27):
1

spinal cord [spaɪnəl]

shelf [ʃelf]

Heart disease may be treatable with stem cells. But a project to repair spinal cords is being shelved.
[NOUN] Your spinal cord is a thick cord of nerves inside your spine which connects your brain to nerves in all parts of your body.

2

재생 의학 지지자들에게는 좋은 측면도 있고 나쁜 측면도 있었던 주였습니다.

It has been a mixed week for proponents of regenerative medicine.
*mixed 식으로 나오면 good point와 bad point에 대한 내용이 나올 것을 예상할 수 있다.

3

*mixed [mɪkst]

*proponent [prəpoʊnənt] 2

regenerative [rɪdʒenərətɪv] 2

It has been a mixed week for proponents of regenerative medicine.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] If you have mixed feelings about something or someone, you feel uncertain about them because you can see both good and bad points about them.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] If you are a proponent of a particular idea or course of action, you actively support it.
[ADJ] Regenerative powers or processes cause something to heal or become active again after it has been damaged or inactive.

4

spin off

A stem cell is one that, when it divides, spins off some offspring that remain as stem cells while others turn into functional tissue.
*offspring은 불가산 명사이다!
[VERB] [tr, preposition] to turn (a part of a business enterprise) into a separate company

5

therapeutic [θerəpju:tɪk] 1 3

pull out of

The bad news for those who have hopes of the field is that Geron, an American firm that was a pioneer of the therapeutic use of stem ceels, is pulling out of the business.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] [MEDICAL] Therapeutic treatment is designed to treat an illness or to improve a person's health, rather than to prevent an illness.
*to move or to make somebody/something move away from something or stop being involved in it

6

그것은(미국 회사 Geron은) 척수에 부상을 입어 몸이 마비된 사람들을 위한 치료목적으로 배아 줄기 세포를 테스트하고 있었던 프로젝트를 끝내거나, 살 수 있는 사람을 찾는다면 팔겁니다.

It is ending (or selling, if it can find a buyer) a project that was testing embryonic stem cells as a treatment for people paralysed by injuries to their spinal cords.
[pærəlaɪz]1

7

cardiac [kɑ:rdiæk] 1

They have used more specialised stem cells- ones that spin off only cardiac cells- to repair the hearts of people with heart failure.

8

2008년에만(정확한 통계수치는 이것이 가장 최근 것임) 730만명의 사람들이 그것(관상동맥질환)으로 목숨을 잃었습니다.

It ended 7.3m lives in 2008(the most recent year for which figures are available).
*정확한 통계수치는 이것이 가장 최근 것임

9

*transplant 명사 [美|trӕnzplӕnt] 동사 [美trӕnz|plӕnt]

thumper

A patient with heart failure( caused by a muscle-damaging heart attack) may benefit from a transplant, but there are not enough spare thumpers around for all those who need them.
[NOUN] A transplant is a medical operation in which a part of a person's body is replaced because it is diseased.
*심장을 부르는 캐주얼한 단어 cf)chopper 헬리콥터

10

*Hence

running repairs

Hence the idea of doing running repairs on a patient's existing organ.
그래서 환자가 가지고 있는 기관(심장)에 바로 수술을 하자는 생각이 나온 것입니다.
[ADV] [ADV cl/group] [FORMAL] You use hence to indicate that the statement you are about to make is a consequence of what you have just said.
[NOUN:PLURAL] repairs, as to a machine or vehicle, that are minor and can be made with little or no interruption in the use of the item

11

닥터Bolli의 연구에 참여한 사람들은 23명의 불행한 사람들로 그들 각각은 과거에 적어도 한번의 심장발작이 있었고 그로인해 관상동맥 우회수술을 기다리고 있는 사람들이었다. 그 관상동맥 수술은 막혀버린 심장으로의 혈액 공급을 다른 곳에서 가져온 혈관으로 대체 동맥을 정교하게 만들어 바꾸는 것을 말한다.

The participants in Dr.Bolli's study were 23 unfortunates who had each had at least one heart attack in the past, and were thus lined up for coronary-bypass surgery, in which the furred-up blood supply to the heart is replaced with an alternative artery crafted from a blood vessel taken from elsewhere.
*부사로 쓰이기도 함.
*be lined up for이 어떻게 해석되는지도 볼 것!

12

*be lined up for

*bypass [baɪpɑ:s, -pæs] 1

*furred-up

*craft

The participants in Dr.Bolli's study were 23 unfortunates who had each had at least one heart attack in the past, and were thus lined up for coronary-bypass surgery, in which the furred-up blood supply to the heart is replaced with an alternative artery crafted from a blood vessel taken from elsewhere.
*~을 위해 줄지어 서있다(여기서는 기다리고 있다)
[NOUN] [oft N n] A bypass is a surgical operation performed on or near the heart, in which the flow of blood is redirected so that it does not flow through a part of the heart which is diseased or blocked.
**막혀버린
[VERB] If something is crafted, it is made skilfully.

13

control group

Seven of the 23 acted as a control group, and received no intervention from Dr.Bolli after the surgery.
[NOUN] any group used as a control in a statistical experiment, esp a group of patients who receive either a placebo or a standard drug during an investigation of the effects of another drug on other patients

14

*break up

*culture [kʌltʃər] 1

*number [nʌmbər] 1

They(tissue samples) broke these up, in order to extract cardiac stem cells from them, and then bred the stem cells in tissue cultures until they numbered millions.
[VERB] [adverb] to separate or cause to separate
[NOUN] [TECHNICAL] In science, a culture is a group of bacteria or cells which are grown, usually in a laboratory as part of an experiment.
[VERB] [TECHNICAL] In science, to culture a group of bacteria or cells means to grow them, usually in a laboratory as part of an experiment.
[VERB] If a group of people or things numbers a particular total, that is how many there are.

15

catheter [kæθɪtər] 1

About four months after each patient's original operation, when their hearts had stabilised, Dr Bolli used a catheter to deliver 1m of the newly bred stem cells to their damaged heart muscle.
[NOUN] [MEDICAL] A catheter is a tube which is used to introduce liquids into a human body or to withdraw liquids from it.

16

infusion [ɪnfju:ʒən] 2

transfusion [trænsfju:ʒən] 2

Four months after the infusion their hearts were pumping an average of 38.5% of the optimal volume, and this had risen to 42.5% a year after the transfusion.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] If there is an infusion of one thing into another, the first thing is added to the other thing and makes it stronger or better.
[NOUN] A blood transfusion is a process in which blood is injected into the body of a person who is badly injured or ill.

17

*feat [fi:t]

Just how the cardiac stem cells achieved this feat remains unclear.
[NOUN] [approval] If you refer to an action, or the result of an action, as a feat, you admire it because it is an impressive and difficult achievement.

18

주입된 세포가 스스로 새로운 근육을 형성 했을 수 있습니다. 그게 아니면, 그들이 만들어낸 화학물질이 이미 심장 내에 있던 세포 내 변화를 촉진했을 수도 있습니다.

It could be that the injected cells form new muscle themselves. Alternatively, chemicals they secrete may stimulate changes in cells already present in the heart.
*It could be that ~일 수 있습니다
*Alternatively:아니면 ~일 수도 있습니다.

19

secrete [sɪkri:t] 2

It could be that the injected cells form new muscle themselves. Alternatively, chemicals they secrete may stimulate changes in cells already present in the heart.

20

심장 수술에 대한 같은 맥락을 가진 의문들이 또한 주시되고 있습니다.

Other lines of inquiry into heart repair are also being followed.
*be followed: 주시되고 있다.

21

do the trick/job

Eduardo Marban plans to test whether stem cells from a general cell bank, rather than specifically from the patient to be treated himself, might do the trick- or whether they would, instead, be rejected by the immune system.
*be effective. do what is needed or wanted
*거부반응에 관한 용어는 reject

22

go one better (than somebody/something)

Deepak Srivastava thinks he can go one better, bt not using stem cells at all.
*do something better than somebody else; improve on something

23

기능이 많이 저하된 심장을 중년에 치료하고 몇 년 더 살 수 있는 날까지 얼마 남지 않았을 수도 있다.

The day may not be far off, then, when a dicky heart can be serviced in mid-life and made good for a few more years.

24

*far off

dicky[dɪkɪ] ] 1

The day may not be far off, then, when a dicky heart can be serviced in mid-life and made good for a new more years.
[ADJ] If you describe a moment in time as far off, you mean that it is a long time from the present, either in the past or the future.
[NOUN] [, pl dickies,dickeys] a woman's false blouse front, worn to fill in the neck of a jacket or low-cut dress

25

그래도 마음 놓지 마세요: 병을 예방하는 것이 치료하는 것보다 중요합니다.

That is no excuse for complacency : Prevention will always remain a better course of action than cure.

26

complacency [kəmpleɪsənsi] 2
complacent [kəmpleɪsənt] 2

That is no excuse for complacency : Prevention will always remain a better course of action than cure.
[NOUN] [disapproval] Complacency is being complacent about a situation.
[ADJ] [disapproval] A complacent person is very pleased with themselves or feels that they do not need to do anything about a situation, even though the situation may be uncertain or dangerous.

27

미래에는, 심장마비가 오늘날 그런 것처럼 두려운 가능성은 아닐 것이다.

A heart attack will, in the future, not be quite the fearful prospect it is today.
*it is today 오늘날 그런