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An American anti-piracy bill tried to stem the global theft of intellectual property.
*stem the tide/전염병/걷잡을 수 없는 사태
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you stem something, you stop it spreading, increasing, or continuing.


저작권이 설정된 자료에 대한 불법 복제와 공유하는 행위는 한 나라안에서도 막기 힘들어요.

Illegal copying and sharing of copyrigthed material is hard enough to stop witin a country.
*copying: 복제하는 행위


enthusiast [ɪnθu:ziæst] 2
cf)aficionado [əfɪʃiənɑ:doʊ] 2 4


American-owned intellectual property, say, may be uploaded in one country and downloaded in a second, via a website whose computers are in a third, operated by anonymous enthusiasts from goodness-knows-where.
[NOUN] An enthusiast is a person who is very interested in a particular activity or subject and who spends a lot of time on it.
[NOUN] If someone is an aficionado of something, they like it and know a lot about it.
*I do not know; no one knows


그 법안은, (불법 파일)중개인들을 압박함으로써 미국인들의 외국 불법 사이트 접근을 차단하는 것을 목적으로 한다.

The bill aims to cut off Americans’ access to foreign pirate websites by squeezing intermediaries.


*pirate [paɪrət] 1

intermediary [ɪntərmi:diəri] 1 3

The bill aims to cut off Americans’ access to foreign pirate websites by squeezing intermediaries.
[ADJ] A pirate version of something is an illegal copy of it.
[NOUN] An intermediary is a person who passes messages or proposals between two people or groups.


take down

Right-holders. such as Hollywood film studios, will be able to request that a credit-card film or advertising network stop doing business with a foerign site; or ask a search engine to take down links to the site; or ask an internet-service provider to block the site's domain name, making it harder to reach.
[VERB] to dismantle or tear down


그러면 그 (불법 파일)중개인은 5일 안에 요구사항을 따르거나 반박해야 한다.

The intermediary then has just five days to comply or rebut the complaint.


go to court

After that the rights-holder can go to court.
*고소하다(법의 힘을 빌리다.)


swamp [swɒmp] 1

Critics of the bill say that takedown requests and court orders will swamp smaller firms and start-ups
[VERB] If something swamps a place or object, it fills it with water.


smack of [smæk]

They say that blocking entire websites via their domain name smacks of censorship, and that determined downloaders will anyway find the bock easy by bypass.
[VERB] If one thing smacks of another thing that you consider bad, it reminds you of it or is like it.
*to seem to contain an unpleasant attitude or quality


label [leɪbəl] 1

Supporting the bill are not only film studios and music labels, but also drug firms and other manufacturers.
*music label음반사


*infringement [ɪnfrɪndʒmənt] 2

Though SOPA itself does not affect them, they have a big interest in fighting any kind of intellectual-property infringement.
[NOUN] [usu N of/on n] An infringement is an action or situation that interferes with your rights and the freedom you are entitled to.


rebut [rɪbʌt] 2

The intermediary then has just five days to comply or rebut the complaint.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you rebut a charge or criticism that is made against you, you give reasons why it is untrue or unacceptable.


*deterrence [dɪtɜ:rəns] 2

Monitors struggle to distinguish the effect of deterrence from the rise of easy, cheap alternatives to piratical downloading, such as legal online music services.
[NOUN] Deterrence is the prevention of something, especially war or crime, by having something such as weapons or punishment to use as a threat.


*wage [weɪdʒ]

But the fight against intellectual-property theft is waged hard.
[VERB] If a person, group, or country wages a campaign or a war, they start it and continue it over a period of time.


*sprout [spraʊt]

It resembles a bit the fight against illegal drugs: clamp down in one place, and the trade sprouts elsewhere.
[VERB] When leaves, shoots, or plants sprout somewhere, they grow there.


*hamper [hæmpər] 1

With great effort, courts have closed or hampered some big "peer-to-peer" file-sharing sites. But others spring up in their place.
법원이 엄청난 노력으로큰 P2P 파일공유 사이트들을 닫거나 차단하더라도 새로운 것들이 사라진 그 자리에 다시 생겨난다.
[VERB] If someone or something hampers you, they makes it difficult for you to do what you are trying to do.
*to appear, develop, grow, etc. quickly or suddenly



In the eyes of righ-holders, the law seems shamefully lax.
[ADJ] If you say that a person's behaviour or a system is lax, you mean they are not careful or strict about maintaining high standards.


jurisdiction [dʒʊərɪsdɪkʃən] 1 3

The pirates just moved thier illegal activity to looser jurisdictions, such as Sweden.
[NOUN] [LEGAL] A jurisdiction is a state or other area in which a particular court and system of laws has authority.


이것이 최후의 보루다.

This is the last stand.


(불법 파일)중개인들은 다른 전선(다른 나라)에서도 공격을 받고 있다.

Intermediaries are under fire on other fronts too.


oblige [əblaɪdʒ]2

These oblige internet-service providers to shut off service from users suspected of downloading illegal files.
[VERB] To oblige someone means to be helpful to them by doing what they have asked you to do.