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Flashcards in Lesson127 Brazilian brew Deck (24)
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crow [kroʊ]

*trade [treɪd]

cf)제가 몸담고 있는 것은 변호사이지만 저는 딸기 키우는데 대부분의 시간을 보내고 있습니다.

We've been waiting for this news for more than 30 years, crows Marcos Jank, the president of UNICA, the Brazilian sugarcane-growers' trade association.
[VERB] When a cock crows, it makes a loud sound, often early in the morning.
[NOUN] [usu supp N] A trade is a particular area of business or industry.
[NOUN] [oft poss N, also by N] Someone's trade is the kind of work that they do, especially when they have been trained to do it over a period of time.
cf) I'm lawyer by trade, but I spend most of my time growing straberries.


demise [dɪmaɪz]2

*shelter [ʃeltər] 1

The caus of his excitement is the demise on December 31st of import tariffs and tax credits that have long sheltered ethanol distilled from corn in the United States from the same stuff made from sugarcane in Brazil.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] The demise of something or someone is their end or death.
[VERB] If you shelter someone, usually someone who is being hunted by police or other people, you provide them with a place to stay or live.


clime [klaɪm]

Distilling ethanol from tropical sugarcane takes less land and usus less fossil fuel than starting with corn grown in temperate climes.
[NOUN] [LITERARY] You use clime in expressions such as warmer climes and foreign climes to refer to a place that has a particular kind of climate.


pamper [pæmpər] 1

grotesque [groʊtesk] 2

That makes Brazilian ethanol, unlike the pampered and grotesquely wasteful American version, competitive with hydrocarbons and genuinely good for the environment.
[VERB] If you pamper someone, you make them feel comfortable by doing things for them or giving them expensive or luxurious things, sometimes in a way which has a bad effect on their character.
cf) Pampered kids
[ADJ] You say that something is grotesque when it is so unnatural, unpleasant, and exaggerated that it upsets or shocks you.


대부분의 브라질 자동차는 두 가지 연료를 섞어 사용하여 운행된다.

Most of Brazil’s cars run on a mix of the two fuels.
*run on~:~을 연료로 써서 운행되다.



*replant [ri:plɑ:nt]2

credit crunch

Poor weather, and cash-strapped growers delaying their replanting after the 2008 credit crunch, have recently squeezed production- and led to Brazil importing some American ethanol.
[ADJ] [JOURNALISM] If a person or organization is cash-strapped, they do not have enough money to buy or pay for the things they want or need.
[VERB] [tr] to plant again
[NOUN] [informal] a period during which there is a sudden reduction in the availability of credit from banks and other lenders 신용 경색(자금의 흐름이 막히는 것)
=credit squeeze.


*overrepresented [òuvərreprizéntid]

*underpopulated [ʌndərpɒpjʊleɪtɪd] 1 3

caucus [kɔ:kəs] 1

America's subsidies and trade barriers were long defended by senators from over-represented, underpopulated rural states (and protected by the fact that corn-loving Iowa holds the first presidential caucuses).
[형용사] 대표가 지나치게 많은; ((특히)) 대의원이 너무 많은
[ADJ] You describe a country or region as underpopulated when it could support a much larger population than it has.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] A caucus is a group of people within an organization who share similar aims and interests or who have a lot of influence. 전당대회


wane [weɪn]

But the corn lobby's influence is waning.
[VERB] If something wanes, it becomes gradually weaker or less, often so that it eventually disappears.
줄어들고 있다. (썰물 빠져나갔을 때)
cf)In his waining years: 노년기에


에탄올 세제 혜택으로 2011년에 60억 달러나 들었는데, 경제적으로 설득하기 어려운 안이었다.

Ethanol tax-credits cost $6 billion in 2011: a hard sell in hard times.


hard sell

[NOUN] A hard sell is a method of selling in which the salesperson puts a lot of pressure on someone to make them buy something. 설득하기 어려운 안건


옥수수 가격이 높은데, 이는 미국의 옥수수 생산자들이 정부보조를 받지 않고도 그들의 엄청난 수확량에 돈을 지불하기 좋은 시기를 조성한다.

Corn prices are high, making this a good moment for American corn-growers to start paying for their enormous pickups unaided.



* look

A few experimental options, such as biodiesel made from algae, look close to commercial viability, says Andy Steinhubl of Bain&Company, a consultancy.
생존 능력; (특히 태아·신생아의) 생육[생존]력; (계획 등의) 실행 가능성
[VERB] If something such as a building or window looks somewhere, it has a view of a particular place.


하지만 그들의(새로운 자원의) 도래는 전에도 예고된 적이 있었지만 그때는 시기상조로 평가받았다고 그가 덧붙였다.

But their coming has been heralded before and proved premature, he adds.
*coming 도래


contender [kəntendər] 2

*contend [kəntend] 2

So the only contender right now is sugarcane ethanhol.
[NOUN] [JOURNALISM] A contender is someone who takes part in a competition.
[VERB] If you contend with someone for something such as power, you compete with them to try to get it.


give/lose ground (to somebody/something)

Before Brazil's sugarcane growers can take advantage of this new market they need to make up lost ground.
*allow somebody/something to obtain more power, influence, etc. than yourself


지난해 그 나라(브라질)에서는 (총 7억5백만 톤의 가동능력 중) 5억5천5백만 톤의 사탕수수를 꾹 눌러 추출하면서, 1억5천만 톤의 공장 가동능력은 사용되지 않았다.

Last year the country crushed 555m tonnes of sugarcane, with 150m tonnes of mill capacity left unused.
*with~ left unused


mill [mɪl]

Last year the country crushed 555m tonnes of sugarcane, with 150m tonnes of mill capacity left unused.
[NOUN] A mill is a building in which grain is crushed to make flour.


경작(경제)이 다시 살아나고 있다.

Planting is picking up again.


*moot [mu:t]

A long-mooted pipeline carrying ethanol from Brazil's central and southern sugar-growing regions to Santos, its largest port, might finally get built.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If a plan, idea, or subject is mooted, it is suggested or introduced for discussion.


fiddling [fɪdəlɪŋ] 1

In recent years Brazil's government has made investment in the sector less attractive by fiddling with the price of fuel.
[NOUN] [BRIT, INFORMAL] Fiddling is the practice of getting money dishonestly by altering financial documents.


인플레이션을 통제하기 위해, 브라질 정부는 국가가 운영하는 큰 석유회사인 Petrobras에 휘발유 가격을 낮추고 그래서 결과적으로는 에탄올 가격의 상한선을 정해버리도록 하는 압력을 가했다.

To help control inflation it pressured Petrobras, the country’s state-controlled oil giant, to keep petrol prices low, thereby capping the price of ethanol.


thereby[ðeərbaɪ] 1 2

*cap [kæp]

To help control inflation it pressured Petrobras, the country’s state-controlled oil giant, to keep petrol prices low, thereby capping the price of ethanol.
[ADV] [FORMAL] You use thereby to introduce an important result or consequence of the event or action you have just mentioned.
[VERB] If the government caps an organization, council, or budget, it limits the amount of money that the organization or council is allowed to spend, or limits the size of the budget.



Access to a big foreign market should be the pick-me-up Brazil's ethanol producers need to start speding again.
[NOUN] [INFORMAL] A pick-me-up is something that you have or do when you are tired or depressed in order to make you feel better.


이 큰 외국시장(미국)에 개방된 것은 브라질의 에탄올 생산자들이 다시 일을 시작해야 하는 활력소가 될 것이다.

Access to a big foreign market should be the pick-me-up Brazil’s ethanol producers need to start spending again.