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3년도 채 되기 전에, 당시 국방부 장관이었던 Robert Gates는 북한에게 똑같은 돈을 주고 사는 것에 신물이 난다고 경고했었다.

Not quite three years ago Robert Gates, then America's defence secretary, warned North Korea that he "was tired of buying the same horse twice".
*Not quite three years ago
*then 당시
cf)Then president Bush: 당시 대통령이었던 부시


1005.seedy [si:di] 1

1006.racketeer [rækɪtɪər] 1 4

1007.extort [ɪkstɔ:rt] 2

Like some seedy racketeer, the delinquents in 평양 had extorted a generous payment in exchange for talks about giving up their pursuit of nuclear weapons.
[ADJ] [disapproval] If you describe a person or place as seedy, you disapprove of them because they look dirty and untidy, or they have a bad reputation.
[NOUN] A racketeer is someone who makes money from illegal activities such as threatening people or selling worthless, immoral, or illegal goods or services.
[VERB] If someone extorts money from you, they get it from you using force, threats, or other unfair or illegal means.


1008.renege [rɪnɪg] 2

But they had reneged on their promise, procured a bomb and were now expecting yet more rewards for returning to the table. *yet more 또?
[VERB] If someone reneges on a promise or an agreement, they do not do what they have promised or agreed to do.


1009.exasperate [ɪgzɑ:spəreɪt, -zæs-] 2

1010.inducement [ɪndu:smənt] 2

1011.latterly [lætərli] 1

Over the years an exasperated world has tried inducements, threats and, latterly, "strategic patience"--a form of isolation.
[VERB] If someone or something exasperates you, they annoy you and make you feel frustrated or upset.
[NOUN] If someone is offered an inducement to do something, they are given or promised gifts or benefits in order to persuade them to do it.
cf)foreign investment inducement 외자유치
[ADV] [WRITTEN] You can use latterly to indicate that a situation or event is the most recent one.


1012.hermit [hɜ:rmɪt] 1

1013.lob [lɒb]

All the while the hermit kingdom has stumbled on, stockpilling uranium, and occasionally testing bombs and lobbing missiles into the Pacific Ocean.
[NOUN] A hermit is a person who lives alone, away from people and society.
[VERB] If you lob something, you throw it so that it goes quite high in the air.


1014.suspend [səspend] 2

1015.moratorium [mɔ:rətɔ:riəm] 1 3

On February 29th North Korea and America announced that the North would suspend its enrichment of uranium at its plant in Yongbyon and impose a moratorium on tests of weapons and long-range missiles.
[VERB] If you suspend something, you delay it or stop it from happening for a while or until a decision is made about it.
[NOUN] A moratorium on a particular activity or process is the stopping of it for a fixed period of time, usually as a result of an official agreement.
*imposed a moratorium on


1016.caprice [kæpri:s] 2


1018.deceit [dɪsi:t]2

Despite North Korea's record of caprice and outright deceit, this is a good deal for America.
[NOUN] [FORMAL] A caprice is an unexpected action or decision which has no strong reason or purpose.
[ADJ] [ADJ n] Outright means complete and total.
[NOUN] Deceit is behaviour that is deliberately intended to make people believe something which is not true.


1019.scandalous [skændələs] 2

1020.punctilious [pʌŋktɪliəs] 2

The ruling elite is scandalously indifferent to the suffering of ordinary North Koreans but it is punctiliously conscious of its own dignity.
[ADJ] [disapproval] You can describe something as scandalous if it makes you very angry and you think the people responsible for it should be ashamed.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] Someone who is punctilious is very careful to behave correctly.


1021.indeed [ɪndi:d] 2

1022.desperate [despərət] 1

Indeed, after taking power unexpectedly at the end of last year after the death of Kim Jong Il, it is a teat that he must be desperate to pass.
[ADV] [ADV with cl] [emphasis] You use indeed to introduce a further comment or statement which strengthens the point you have already made.
예를 들어라는 뜻으로 쓰일수도 있다.
[ADJ] [v-link ADJ, usu ADJ to-inf, ADJ for n] If you are desperate for something or desperate to do something, you want or need it very much indeed.


1023.몇 십만톤의 여분 식량은 아주 유용하게 쓰일 수 있다.

A few hundred thousand tonnes of extra food would come in handy.
*come in handy=useful.


1024.come in from the cold

North Korea will have seen how Myanmar, Asia's other pariah, has come in from the cold and is beginning to win the favour of the outside world.
*be included in a group, an activity, etc. that you have had no part in before


1025.apply pressure

Perhaps China has also been applying pressure.
*압력을 가하다.


1026.if only to

1027.buffer state

1028.garrison [gærɪsən] 1

It has propped up the Kims, if only to protect the buffer state that separates it from American troops garrisoned in South Korea.
*단지 ~을 하기 위해서라도
[NOUN] A buffer state is a peaceful country situated between two or more larger hostile countries.
[VERB] To garrison a place means to put soldiers there in order to protect it. You can also say that soldiers are garrisoned in a place.


1029.trail [treɪl]

1030.blaze [bleɪz]

1031. set out

But it has stressed that the North needs to follow the trail it blazed a little over 30 years ago when it set out reform.
[NOUN] A trail is a route along a series of paths or roads, often one that has been planned and marked out for a particular purpose. 누가 앞서서 만들어진 길
[PHRASE] If someone blazes a trail, they discover or develop something new.
[VERB] [intr] to begin or embark on an undertaking, esp a journey 첫 발을 내밀다.


그러기 위해서(중국이 앞서간 개혁개방을 좇기 위해서), 북한정권의 지도 원리인 주체사상에 명기된 자급자족은 이제 외부세계와의 관계로 바뀌어야 할 필요가 있다.

For that, the autarky enshrined in the North's guiding principle of Juche, or self-reliance, needs to make way for engagement with the outside world.


1032.autarky [ɔ:tɑ:kɪ] 1

1033.enshrine [ɪnʃraɪn] 2

1034.make way for

For that, the autarky enshrined in the North's guiding principle of Juche, or self-reliance, needs to make way for engagement with the outside world.
[NOUN] [, pl -kies] (esp of a political unit) a system or policy of economic self-sufficiency aimed at removing the need for imports
[VERB] If something such as an idea or a right is enshrined in something such as a constitution or law, it is protected by it. *Yasukuni shrine야스쿠니 신사
*make enough space for somebody/something; allow somebody/something to pass ~에게 자리를 내주다


1035.epic [epɪk]

1036.sulk [sʌlk]

That has meant getting the North out of its epic sulk.
[ADJ] Something that is epic is very large and impressive.
[VERB] If you sulk, you are silent and bad-tempered for a while because you are annoyed about something.


1037.faint [feɪnt]1

And there is a faint possibility that it will lead to much more than that.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] A faint sound, colour, mark, feeling, or quality has very little strength or intensity.


1038.미국이 그에게 기회를 준 것은 잘한 일이다.

America is right to give him the chance.
*be right to


1039.아직 요원하긴 하지만 어쨌든 그것은 당장 미국이 끌릴만한 가능성을 가지고 있다.

Just now that is an enticing, if still distant, prospect for Barack Obama.
*if still distant머나먼 미래에나 가능할지 모르겠지만
cf)she is a right, if somewhat old, candidate for his Wife project.


1040.enticing [ɪntaɪsɪŋ] 2

Just now that is an enticing, if still distant, prospect for Barack Obama.
[ADJ] Something that is enticing is extremely attractive and makes you want to get it or to become involved with it.