Lesson131 We are the 99.9% Flashcards Preview

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as opposed to

"We are the 99percent" is a great slogan. It correctly defines the issue as being the middle class versus the elite (as opposed to the middle class versus the poor).
*define ~ as ~
*used to make a contrast between two things ~와 대비되는 개념으로써



And it also gets past the common but wrong establishment notion that rising inequality is mainly about the well educated doing better than the less educated.
*the establishment notion: 자리잡은 생각
[NOUN] [usu the N in sing] You refer to the people who have power and influence in the running of a country, society, or organization as the establishment.


Gilded Age [gɪld]

a handful of [hændfʊl] 1

The big winners in this new Gilded Age have been a handful of very wealthy people, not college graduates in general.
[VERB] If you gild a surface, you cover it in a thin layer of gold or gold paint.
[NOUN] [usu N of n] A handful of people or things is a small number of them.


그런데 제 생각에는 그 99퍼센트 구호는 목표를 너무 낮게 잡고 있습니다.

If anything, however, the 99 percent slogan aims too low.
*if anything=if you ask me: 사실, 말하자면(주의 환기), 제 생각에는
*aim high


by and large

*deficit [defəsɪt]1

*even as




*fiscal discipline

And while Democrats, by and large, want that super-elite to make at least some contribution to long-term deficit reduction, Republicans want to cut the super-elite's taxes even as they slash Social security, Medicare and Medicaid in the name of fiscal discipline.
[ADV] in general; on the whole
[NOUN] A deficit is the amount by which something is less than what is required or expected, especially the amount by which the total money received is less than the total money spent.
*just at the same time as somebody does something or as something else happens
[VERB] [JOURNALISM] To slash something such as costs or jobs means to reduce them by a large amount.
*고령자 의료보험
*사회적 약자 의료보험


*정책 논쟁으로 넘어가기 전에 여기 그 통계수치가 있다.

Before I get to those policy disputes, here a few numbers.


그 리포트에 따르면 1979년부터 2005년 사이에 소득분배에서 중간정도에 있는 미국인들의 물가상승률을 반영해조정한 세후 소득이 21퍼센트 올랐습니다.

According to that report, between 1979 and 2005 the inflation-adjusted, after-tax income of Americans in the middle of the income distribution rose 21 percent.
*inflation-adjusted: 물가를 반영한/적용시킨
*after-tax 세후소득/Pretax 세전 소득
*income distribution임금 줄 세우기


특히 자본소득 과세는 1979년보다 훨씬 낮다.

In particular, taxes on capital gains are much lower than they were in 1979.
*much lower than they were


*음, "계급간의 전쟁"이라는 외침을 차치하고 생각하면, 그러한 질문(왜 공화당은 더 많은 tax-cut을 주장하는가?)이 생겨날때, 그 대답은 항상 슈퍼엘리트들은 직업을 창출해 낸다는 것이다.

Well, aside from shouts of "class warfare!" whenever such questions are raised, the usual answer if that the super-elite are "job creators."


그도 그럴것이 이상적인 모습의 시장경제에서는 일하기로 선택함으로써 각각의 근로자가 그 개인이 경제에 딱 기여한 정도만큼만 봉급을 받을 것이다. 그거보다 더 많아서도 적어서도 안됩니다.

After all, in an idealized market economy each worker would be paid exactly what he or she contributes to the economy by choosing to work, no more and no less.
*after all
* be paid +목적어
*no more and no less 따라오는 모양새 good


*alleged [əledʒd] 2

And they could be paying substancially more in taxes, not offered even more tax breaks, despite the alleged budget crisis, because of the wonderful things they supposedly do.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] An alleged fact has been stated but has not been proved to be true.


bigwig [bɪgwɪg]1


Mosst of them are corporate bigwigs and financial wheeler-dealers.
[NOUN] [disapproval, INFORMAL] If you refer to an important person as a bigwig, you are being rather disrespectful.
[NOUN] [disapproval] If you refer to someone, especially in business or politics, as a wheeler-dealer, you disapprove of the way that they try to succeed or to get what they want, often by dishonest or unfair methods.


*to put it mildly

And these are not, to put it mildly, professions in which there is a clear relationship between someone's income and his economic contribution.
*좀 좋게 표현하면


*executive pay

*사장님 봉급


아주 실적이 안 좋은 CEO가 아직도 엄청나게 많은 봉급을 받아가고 심지어 실패하고 짤린 임원들까지도 퇴직하면서 종종 수백만불을 받습니다.

Poorly performing C.E.O.’s still get lavish paychecks, and even failed and fired executives often receive millions as they go out the door.
*paycheck [명사] 봉급(으로 받는 수표)
*go out the door퇴직하다


*apparent [əpærənt] 2

*cf)obvious [ɒbviəs] 1

mirage [mɪrɑ:ʒ]1

Meanwhile, the economic crisis showed that mch of the apparent value created by modern finance was a mirage.
[ADJ] [ADJ n] An apparent situation, quality, or feeling seems to exist, although you cannot be certain that it does exist.
[ADJ] If something is obvious, it is easy to see or understand.
[NOUN] A mirage is something which you see when it is extremely hot, for example in the desert, and which appears to be quite near but is actually a long way away or does not really exist.


그 리스크는 대부분 사기꾼들 자신들에 의해 감수된 것이 아니라 순진한 투자자들이나 납세자들에 의해 감수된 것이었고 일이 다 틀어졌을 때 이들이 결국 책임을 덮어쓰게 된 것이었습니다.

The risk was mostly borne not by the wheeler-dealers themselves but either by naïve investors or by taxpayers, who ended up holding the bag when it all went wrong.



hold the bag

The risk was mostly borne not by the wheeler-dealers themselves but either by naïve investors or by taxpayers, who ended up holding the bag when it all went wrong.


waspishly [wɒspɪʃ] 1

disproportionate [dɪsprəpɔ:rʃənət] 1 3

[ADJ] A waspish remark or sense of humour is sharp and critical.
[ADJ] Something that is disproportionate is surprising or unreasonable in amount or size, compared with something else.