Lesson132 Nobody Understand Debt Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson132 Nobody Understand Debt Deck (27):
1

*알고나 하는 이야기야?(알지도 못하면서)

They have no idea what they're talking about.

2

*utterly [ʌ́tərli]

Perhaps most obviously, the economic "experts" on whom much of Congress relies have been repeatedly, utterly wrong about the short run effects of budget deficits.
[ADV] [emphasis] You use utterly to emphasize that something is very great in extent, degree, or amount.

3

헤리티지재단과 같은 부류의 단체들로부터 경제 분석을 받는 사람들은 오바마 대통령이 취임한 이래로 재정 적자가 금리를 오르게 하기를 기다려 왔습니다.

People who get their economic analysis from the likes of the Heritage Foundation have been waiting ever since President Obama took office for budget deficits to send interest rates soaring.

4

지금당장이라도
cf) 그는 지금 당장이라도 나를 구하로 돌아올 것이다.

Any day now.
cf)He could come back for me any day now.

5

역사적으로 낮은 수치
사상 최고치

And while they've been waiting, those rates have dropped to historical lows.
*historical lows: 명사로 쓰임
*an all-time high

6

*pundit

For while debt can be a problem, the way our politicians and pundits think about debt is all wrong, and exaggerates the problem's size.
[NOUN] A pundit is a person who knows a lot about a subject and is often asked to give information or opinions about it to the public.

7

take out (a loan)

They see America as being like a family that took out too large a mortgage, and will have a hard time making the monthly payments.
*took out too large a mortgage
*대출 받다=get a loan

8

tax base

All they need to do is ensure that debt grows more slowly than their tax base.
*과세표준

9

2차 세계대전 때 진 빚이 아직 청산되지 않았습니다. 미국의 경제 성장과 더불어 세금으로 인한 수입이 증가함에 따라, 이것은 점차 있으나 마나한 것이 되었습니다.

The debt from World War II was never repaid; it just became increasingly irrelevant as the U.S. economy grew, and with it the income subject to taxation.
=It just become increasingly irrelevant as the U.S economy grew and the income subject to taxation grew with it.

10

irrelevant [ɪrelɪvənt] 2

*subject to

taxation[tækseɪʃən] 2

The debt from World War II was never repaid; it just became increasingly irrelevant as the U.S. economy grew, and with it the income subject to taxation.
[ADJ] [oft ADJ to n] If you say that something is irrelevant, you mean that it is not important in a situation.
[ADJ] [v-link ADJ to n] To be subject to something means to be affected by it or to be likely to be affected by it. ~의 대상이 되는
[NOUN] Taxation is the system by which a government takes money from people and spends it on things such as education, health, and defence.

11

incur [ɪnkɜ:r] 2

This was clearly true of the debt incurred to win World War 2.
정부의 부채는 우리스스로에게 진다는 것은 2차 세계대전을 승리하기 위해 붙은 부채에 대해서는 사실이었다.
[VERB] [WRITTEN] If you incur something unpleasant, it happens to you because of something you have done.
(부채, 이자소득이)붙다

12

be on the hook [hʊk]

Taxpayers were on the hook for a debt that was significantly bigger, as a percentage of G.D.P., than debt today.
*as a percentage of G.D.P. gdp대비
[NOUN] A hook is a bent piece of metal or plastic that is used for catching or holding things, or for hanging things up.
*be on the hook: 꼬 끼어 있다.

13

*claim [kleɪm]
cf)hold claims on

It's true that foreigners now hold large claims on the United States, including a fair amount of government debt.
[NOUN] [oft N to n] A claim is a demand for something that you think you have a right to.
cf)~와 관련된 권리를 가지다.

14

하지만, 외국인이 가지고 있는 미국의 채권 1달러의 가치는 미국인이 외국에 가지고 있는 채권 89센트의 가치와 비슷합니다.

But every dollar's worth of foreign claims on America is matched by 89 cents' worth of U.S. claims on foreigners.

15

그리고 외국인들은 보통 미국에 대한 투자금을 안전하지만 수익률이 낮은 자산에 넣기 때문에, 미국인들은 자기 나라에 있는 외국 투자자들에게 돈을 주는 것 보다 외국에 투자해서 더 벌어들이게 됩니다.

And because foreigners tend to put their U.S. investments into safe, low-yield assets, America actually earns more from its assets abroad than it pays to foreign investors.
*earns more from its assets abroad than it pays to foreign investors. than 이전과 이하의 절이 포인트

16

당신이 생각하는 모습이, 중국에 이미 깊게 발목 잡힌 나라로 생각한다면, 그것은 잘못된 생각이다.

If your image is of a nation that's already deep in hock to the Chinese, you've been misinformed.
*your image is of a nation=your image is an image of a nation
cf)This picture is of him

17

be in hock (to somebody)

If your image is of a nation that's already deep in hock to the Chinese, you've been misinformed.
*owe money

18

*손을 자주 씼는 것이 감기에 안 걸리는 가장 좋은 방법이라는 것은 삼척 동자도 안다.

You don't have to be a physician to know that the best way to prevent a cold is to wash your hands as often as possible.

19

levy [levi] 1

*concede [kənsi:d] 2

Taxes must be levied to pay the interest, and you don't have to be a right-wing ideologue to concede that taxes impose some cost on the economy.
[VERB] If a government or organization levies a tax or other sum of money, it demands it from people or organizations.
[VERB] If you concede something, you admit, often unwillingly, that it is true or correct.

20

If nothing else

diversion [dɪvɜ:rʒən] 2

evasion [ɪveɪʒən]2

If nothing else by causing a diversion of resources away from productive activities into tax avoidance and evasion.
*다른 이변이 없다면, 다른 것은 아닐지라도, 적어도
[NOUN] [the N of n] The diversion of something involves changing its course or destination.
[NOUN] [usu with supp, oft N of n, n N] Evasion means deliberately avoiding something that you are supposed to do or deal with.

21

*overindebted

But these costs are a lot less dramatic than the analogy with an overindebted family might suggest.
*too deeply in debt.

22

그리고, 안정적이고 책임성 있는 정부들이 오늘날 일반적으로 생각되는 것 보다 정부들이 역사적으로 이렇게 높은 정도의 부채를 가지고도 잘 살아왔다는 것입니다.

And that’s why nations with stable, responsible governments have historically been able to live with much higher levels of debt than today's conventional wisdom would lead you to believe.
*have historically been able to live with

23

conventional [kənvenʃənəl] 2

And that’s why nations with stable, responsible governments have historically been able to live with much higher levels of debt than today's conventional wisdom would lead you to believe.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] A conventional method or product is one that is usually used or that has been in use for a long time.

24

warrant [wɔ:rənt] 1

Governments that are willing to impose modestly higher taxes when the situation warrants it.
[VERB] If something warrants a particular action, it makes the action seem necessary or appropriate for the circumstances.

25

Keynes는 경제공황에서 빠져나가려면 소비를 해야 한다는 필요성에 대해 쓰고 있었을때, 영국은 오늘날 어느 선진국보다도 부채가 많았습니다. 물론, 일본은 빼구요..

When Keynes was writing about the need to spend your way out of a depression, Britian was deeper in debt than any advanced nation today, with the exception of Japan.
*spend your way out of 계속 돈을 써서 밖으로 길을 개척해 나가다.

26

rabid [ræbɪd, reɪb-]1

Of course, America, with its rabidly antitax conservative movement, may not have a government that is responsible in this sense.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] [disapproval] You can use rabid to describe someone who has very strong and unreasonable opinions or beliefs about a subject, especially in politics.

27

우리는 스스로를 끊임없는 고실업률 덫에 끄집어 내기위해 정부의 지출이 더 많아야 하지, 덜 해야 하는 것은 아닙니다.

We need more, not less, government spending to get us out of our unemployment trap.