Lesson134 Sweetened Charity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson134 Sweetened Charity Deck (20):
1

resilient [rɪzɪliənt] 2

The idea that the state should subsidise giving to good causes is resilient, but not easily justified.
*giving to good causes=charitable giving=donation
[ADJ] [usu v-link ADJ] People and things that are resilient are able to recover easily and quickly from unpleasant or damaging events.

2

모든 경우에 있어서 세금 공제는 B에게 부담을 줌으로써 A에게 부담을 덜어주는 것이라는 것을 반드시 기억하고 있어야 합니다.(bear)

It must be borned in mind that in every case exemption means a relief to A at the charge of B.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you bear something such as a weapon, you hold it or carry it with you.

3

*bear-beared-borne

*exemption [ɪgzempʃən] 2

It must be borned in mind that in every case exemption means a relief to A at the charge of B.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you bear something such as a weapon, you hold it or carry it with you.
[ADJ] If someone or something is exempt from a particular rule, duty, or obligation, they do not have to follow it or do it.

4

*chancellor [tʃɑ:nslər, tʃæns-] 1

*Exchequer [ɪkstʃekər] 2

[NOUN] [usu the N] In Britain, the Chancellor is the Chancellor of the Exchequer.
[NOUN] The Exchequer is the department in the British government which is responsible for receiving, issuing, and accounting for money belonging to the state.

5

*case [keɪs] for/against

*take away

*tax break

This was the heart of his case for taking away a tax break that benefited charities.
[NOUN] [usu sing, oft N for/against n] The case for or against a plan or idea consists of the facts and reasons used to support it or oppose it. 의견 전체
*to remove something and place it somewhere else
[NOUN] [mainly AM] If the government gives a tax break to a particular group of people or type of organization, it reduces the amount of tax they have to pay or changes the tax system in a way that benefits them.

6

(다른 누군가의)세금 감면으로 발생하는 비용을, 더 높은 세금의 형태로, 아내와 자식들을 부양하기 위해 열심히 일하는 남자들인 가장들에게 물리는 것은 공평하지 않습니다.

It is not fair to impose the cost of the exemption, in the form of higher taxes, on the fathers of families, men labouring to support their wives and children.
*impose on

7

*back down on

He would not have been surprised when his successor last week backed down on a more modest attempt towards the same ends.
*물러서다

8

그의 3월 예산 발표에서 Osborne은 부자들이 자선기부로 줄일 수 있는 세금의 총량에 대한 상한선을 제안했습니다, 부유한 탈세자들을 강력히 처벌하는 전략의 일부로 포장하면서요.

In his March budget Mr Osborne proposed a cap on the sum that rich people can deduct from their taxes thanks to their charitable donations, framing it as part of a strategy to crack down on wealthy tax dodgers.

9

*cap [kæp]

*deduct [dɪdʌkt] 2

frame [freɪm]

dodge [dɒdʒ]

In his March budget Mr Osborne proposed a cap on the sum that rich people can deduct from their taxes thanks to their charitable donations, framing it as part of a strategy to crack down on wealthy tax dodgers.
[VERB] If the government caps an organization, council, or budget, it limits the amount of money that the organization or council is allowed to spend, or limits the size of the budget. 여기서는 명사로 상한선
[VERB] When you deduct an amount from a total, you subtract it from the total.
[VERB] [INFORMAL] If someone frames an innocent person, they make other people think that that person is guilty of a crime, by lying or inventing evidence.
[VERB] If you dodge something, you deliberately avoid thinking about it or dealing with it, often by being deceitful.

10

*take up

cudgel [kʌdʒəl]1

Britain's charities took up their cudgels, arguing that reducing the tax break would diminish donations and thus thier ability to do good works.
[VERB] [adverb, mainly tr] to adopt the study, practice, or activity of
[NOUN] A cudgel is a thick, short stick that is used as a weapon. 곤봉
*take up their cudgels: 공격을 가하다.

11

*thunder [θʌndər] 1

*perverse [pərvɜ:rs]2

The Times thundered at Gladstone for his "perverse boldness."
[VERB] [WRITTEN] If you thunder something, you say it loudly and forcefully, especially because you are angry.
[ADJ] [disapproval] Someone who is perverse deliberately does things that are unreasonable or that result in harm for themselves.

12

미국에서는 역사적으로 후한 기부에 대한 세금 혜택들에 대해 전에(는 볼 수) 없던 방식으로 의문이 제기되고 있습니다.

In America historically generous tax incentives to donation are being questioned in a way not seen before.
*in a way not seen before.

13

in lieu [lu:] of

*withhold [wɪðhould] 1

coffer [kɒfər] 1

There has been a sharp rise in demands from charities for so-called PILOTS(payments in lieu of taxes), which involve local governments threatening to withhold certain services from charities unless they "volunteer" to pay something into the government coffers(as they do, increasingly).
*instead of
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you withhold something that someone wants, you do not let them have it.
[NOUN] [OLD-FASHIONED] A coffer is a large strong chest used for storing valuable objects such as money or gold and silver.
[NOUN] [with supp, oft N of n, n N] The coffers of an organization consist of the money that it has to spend, imagined as being collected together in one place.
*government coffers:정부국고 양

14

municipal [mju:nɪsɪpəl] 2

According to the Lincoln Institute, a think-tank, such schemes have been introduced by municipal or other governments in at least 18 states.
[ADJ] Municipal means associated with or belonging to a city or town that has its own local government.
*municipal government 시정부
municipalities 시 (행정구역) =cities

15

*provision [prəvɪʒən] 2

be the norm

In Europe some countries in which generous state provision of services has been the norm have recently begun to experiment with tax incentives to boost the charitable sector.
[NOUN] [also a N, with supp, oft N of n] The provision of something is the act of giving it or making it available to people who need or want it.(provide의 명사)
*일반적인, 정상인

16

*go after

There is a danger that populist politicians across Europe will look at what is happening in Britain and say, if even the British are going after charitable tax breaks for the rich, why don't we?
*to chase or follow a person or an animal to try to catch them

17

confine to

In France there has been discussion of confining tax breaks, which can be quite generous, to charities that spend the money they receive inside the country.
[VERB] To confine something to a particular place or group means to prevent it from spreading beyond that place or group.

18

be up for

But that is not the only reason reform should be up for debate.
*1. to be considered for something, especially as a candidate for a job, in an election, etc.

19

bequest [bɪkwest] 2

A year later, Americans were granted, at death, unlimited deductions for their charitable bequests from the new estate tax.
[NOUN] A bequest is money or property which you legally leave to someone when you die. 유산

20

covenant [kʌvənənt] 1

This was the implicit logic behind the development of deductible donations in Britain in the 1920s, when donors began to covenant part of their income to charities, and thereby avoid paying tax on it.
[NOUN] A covenant is a formal written agreement between two or more people or groups of people which is recognized in law.