Lesson138 The Material Fallacy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson138 The Material Fallacy Deck (23):
1

tumult [tu:mʌlt]1

cohesion [koʊhi:ʒən] 2

The half-century between 1912 and 1962 was a period of great wars and economic tumult but also of impressive social cohesion.
[NOUN] [also no det, oft N of n] A tumult is a state of great confusion or excitement.
[NOUN] If there is cohesion within a society, organization, or group, the different members fit together well and form a united whole.

2

*deteriorate [dɪtɪəriəreɪt] 2

In the half-century between 1962 and the present, America has become more prosperous, peaceful and fair, but the social fabric has deteriorated.
[VERB] If something deteriorates, it becomes worse in some way.

3

*segment

Society has segmented.
[VERB] [BUSINESS] If a company segments a market, it divides it into separate parts, usually in order to improve marketing opportunities.
*분열되다.

4

결혼하지 않은 커플에게서 태어난 미국인 비율이 현재 40%이고, 계속 늘고 있다.

The share of Americans born out of wedlock is now at 40 percent and rising.
*born out of wedlock
*and rising(지금도 증가하고 있는)

5

born out of wedlock

The share of Americans born out of wedlock is now at 40 percent and rising.
*혼외 정사를 태어난
[NOUN] Wedlock is the state of being married.

6

congregate [kɒŋgrɪgeɪt] 1

Liberals congregated around an economically determinist theory.
[VERB] When people congregate, they gather together and form a group.
cf)congregation 공동체 모임(교회)
[NOUN] The people who are attending a church service or who regularly attend a church service are referred to as the congregation.

7

Libertarian [lɪbərteəriən] 1 3

Libertarians congregated around a government-centric theory.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] If someone is libertarian or has libertarian attitudes, they believe in or support the idea that people should be free to think and behave in the way that they want.
A libertarian is someone who with libertarian views. [N-COUNT] 자유의지론자

8

2첫째, 사회적 해체가 어떻게 시작되었든 간에, 일단 시작되면, 그것은 스스로 가속화된다.

First, no matter how social disorganization got started, once it starts, it takes on a momentum of its own.
*take on a momentum of its own

9

momentum [moʊmentəm]2

First, no matter how social disorganization got started, once it starts, it takes on a momentum of its own.
*[NOUN] If a process or movement gains momentum, it keeps developing or happening more quickly and keeps becoming less likely to stop.

10

3사회적 결속력이 떨어진 공동체에서 어린 시절을 보낸 사람들은 성인이 되어서도 문제가 있는 삶을 살게 될 확률이 높고, 결과적으로 한 세대에서 다음 세대로 사회적 혼란이 더욱 더 확대되도록 만든다.

People who grow up in disrupted communities are more likely to lead disrupted lives as adults, magnifying disorder from one generation to the next.
*grow up (in~) 어린시절을 (~에서) 보냈다.

11

개개인은 마땅히 자신의 행동에 대한 책임을 지어야 한다.

Individuals are to be held responsible for their behavior.
*be to 마땅히 ~해야 하다.(예의가운의)
예정 의무 가정 운명 의지

12

4우리가 남자들 중 1/3이 학교를 중퇴하는 동네에서 어린 시절을 보낸다면, 우리 역시 더 안 좋은 삶을 살아갈 것이다.

If any of us grew up in a neighborhood where a third of the men dropped out of school, we’d be much worse off, too.

13

be worse off

If any of us grew up in a neighborhood where a third of the men dropped out of school, we’d be much worse off, too.
*be poorer, unhappier, etc. than before or than somebody else

14

*18개월이 됐을무렵 안정된 애착을 형성하지 못한 아이들은 평생동안 훨씬 나쁜 상황에 봉착하게 된다.

Children who can’t form secure attachments by 18 months face a much worse set of chances for the rest of their lives
*face a much worse set of chances
*for the rest of their lives: 평생동안

15

*neglect [nɪglekt] 2

Murray neglects this research in his book.
[VERB] If you neglect someone or something, you fail to give them the amount of attention that they deserve.

16

blogosphere [blɒɡə|sfɪə] 1

revert to [rɪvɜ:rt] 2

*crude [kru:d]

Meanwhile, his left-wing critics in the blogosphere have reverted to crude 1970s economic determinism: It’s all the fault of lost jobs.
[NOUN] [informal] a collective term for the weblogs on the internet 블로그계
[VERB] [WRITTEN] When someone reverts to a previous topic, they start talking or thinking about it again.
[ADJ] A crude method or measurement is not exact or detailed, but may be useful or correct in a rough, general way.

17

*silence [saɪləns]1

eclipse [ɪklɪps] 2

Liberal economists haven’t silenced conservatives, but they have completely eclipsed liberal sociologists and liberal psychologists.
[VERB] To silence someone or something means to stop them speaking or making a noise. 입 다물게 하다=기를 꺾다.
[VERB] If one thing is eclipsed by a second thing that is bigger, newer, or more important than it, the first thing is no longer noticed because the second thing gets all the attention. 묻히다

18

reduce somebody/something to

Even noneconomist commentators reduce the rich texture of how disadvantage is actually lived to a crude materialism that has little to do with reality.
*to bring somebody/something to a particular state, especially a worse one 전락시키다/폄하하다
cf)Algeria beat Korea 4:2, reducing it to THE pariah among the 32 teams.

19

5이러한 경제결정론이 공개적인 토론을 바보같이 만들고만 있다면 그것만으로도 충분히 나쁜 일일 것이다.

This economic determinism would be bad enough if it was just making public debate dumber.

20

amputation [æmpjʊteɪʃən] 1 3

But the amputation of sociologic, psychological and cognitive considerations makes good policy impossible.
[VERB] To amputate someone's arm or leg means to cut all or part of it off in an operation because it is diseased or badly damaged.
*사지 절단

21

6미국의 사회적 결속력이 현재 너무 약화되어, 제조업 일자리가 기적적으로 다시 생겨난다고 할지라도, 우리는 여전히 그 일자리를 채울 만큼 충분히 안정적이고 능력있는 근로자를 만들어내지 못하고 있을 것이다.

The American social fabric is now so depleted that even if manufacturing jobs miraculously came back we still would not be producing enough stable, skilled workers to fill them.
*come back 사라진 일자리가 come back하다.

22

*deplete [dɪpli:t] 2

The American social fabric is now so depleted that even if manufacturing jobs miraculously came back we still would not be producing enough stable, skilled workers to fill them.
[VERB] [FORMAL] To deplete a stock or amount of something means to reduce it.

23

paternalism [pətɜ:rnəlɪzəm] 2

induce [ɪndu:s-] 2

This requires bourgeois paternalism: Building organizations and structures that induce people to behave responsibly rather than irresponsibly and, yes, sometimes using government to do so.
*bourgeois 중산층(자본주의와 관련)
[NOUN] Paternalism means taking all the decisions for the people you govern, employ, or are responsible for, so that they cannot or do not have to make their own decisions.
[VERB] To induce a state or condition means to cause it. 이끌어주다
cf)foreign investment inducement 외자유치