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Flashcards in Lesson140 Big Bird Deck (26)
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*the other day

I saw a fat pigeon the other day.
*only a few days ago 얼마전에(모호하게 쓰기 good)



*doorstep [dɔ:rstep] 1

*smug [smʌg]

There it was, doddering about on a Bowery doorstep, looking all smug and content.
*dodder about 여기저기를 뒤뚱뒤뚱 걸어다니다.
[VERB] [intr] to move unsteadily; totter
[NOUN] A doorstep is a step in front of a door on the outside of a building.
[ADJ] [disapproval] If you say that someone is smug, you are criticizing the fact they seem very pleased with how good, clever, or lucky they are.


span [spæn]

The fat pigeon had a fat pigeon ass and a fat pigeon belly that spanned the width of two normal birds, and I tried to imagine how the fat pigeon got to be so big.
[VERB] [no passive] If something spans a range of things, all those things are included in it.
*길이, 기간이 이어져 있다.


*tear into [tɛə]

*tuft [tʌft]

*smear [smɪər]

I pictured the fat pigeon tearing into a Big Mac, tufts of all-beef patty and sesame bun flying into the air with every peck, until the fat pigeon’s face was smeared with special sauce.
*[VERB] [intr, preposition, informal] to attack vigorously and damagingly
[NOUN] A tuft of something such as hair or grass is a small amount of it which is growing together in one place or is held together at the bottom.
[VERB] If you smear a surface with an oily or sticky substance or smear the substance onto the surface, you spread a layer of the substance over the surface.


annihilate [ənaɪɪleɪt] 2

holster [hoʊlstər] 1

*spill [spɪl]

I imagined the fat pigeon annihilating a holster of spilled French fries, and to be honest the thought of it got me pissed.
[VERB] To annihilate something means to destroy it completely.
[NOUN] A holster is a holder for a small gun, which is worn on a belt around someone's waist or on a strap around their shoulder. 권총집
[VERB] If a liquid spills or if you spill it, it accidentally flows over the edge of a container.


솔직히 말하자면, 그것(French fries를 싹쓸이 하는 닭둘기)을 생각하는 것만으로도 역겹다.

To be honest the thought of it got me pissed.
*The thought of it


*swarm [swɔ:rm]

*peck [pek]

*plod [plɒd]

*scare off /away

zaftig [zɑ́:ftik,-tiɡ]

varmint [vɑ:mɪnt] 1

In 2007, fat pigeons swarmed into Liverpool, England, pecking and pooping and plodding about, and so upset the locals that the City Council brought in 10 robotic peregrine falcons to scare off the zaftig varmints.
[VERB] When bees or other insects swarm, they move or fly in a large group.
[VERB] If a bird pecks at something or pecks something, it moves its beak forward quickly and bites at it.
[VERB] If someone plods, they walk slowly and heavily.
*to make somebody/something leave or stay away by frightening them
(속어) 풍만한, 곡선미가 있는, 글래머의
[NOUN] [informal] an irritating or obnoxious person or animal 말썽꾸러기


지방함유량이 높고, 쓰레기로 구성된 정크 푸트 식단은 비둘기들을 "지저분하고 건강하지 못한 모습"으로 만들어버렸습니다.(지저분하고 건강하지 못 한 모습을 주었습니다.)

A high-fat, garbage-based junk food diet had given the pigeons "a scruffy, unhealthy appearance."


scruffy [skrʌfi] 1

A high-fat, garbage-based junk food diet had given the pigeons "a scruffy, unhealthy appearance."
[ADJ] Someone or something that is scruffy is dirty and untidy.


모두가 그 닭둘기가 사라져야 한다는 것에 동의했습니다.

Everyone agreed the fat pigeons had to go.
cf)This attitude of yours must go.
이런 너의 태도는 사라져야만 해.


embark [ɪmbɑ:rk] 2 on

corpulent [kɔ:rpjʊlənt] 1

*rotund [roʊtʌnd] 2

round into view

If one embarks on a tour of animal corpulence, spiraling out from captivity to the wild, a seemingly growing army of rotund beasts rounds into view.
[VERB] If you embark on something new, difficult, or exciting, you start doing it.
[ADJ] [LITERARY] If you describe someone as corpulent, you mean they are fat.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] If someone is rotund, they are round and fat.
*눈안에 슈욱 들어오다.


plump [plʌmp] 1

mackerel [mækərəl] 1

*place(put) on ~

In 2008, for example, the dolphins at Japan’s Kinosaki Marine World grew too plump to jump, and were placed on a reduced-mackerel diet.
[ADJ] You can describe someone or something as plump to indicate that they are rather fat or rounded.
[NOUN] A mackerel is a sea fish with a dark, patterned back. 고등어
*~을 유지하다
cf)He was put(placed) on a low-fat diet.
The doctor put me on a low-fat diet.


tubby [tʌbi]1

A similar difficulty arose in a Shanghai aquarium when the sharks got so tubby that keepers gave them fish stuffed with cabbage to help them slim down.
[ADJ] [INFORMAL] If you describe someone as tubby, you mean that they are rather fat.


saunter [sɔ:ntər] 1

onto the scene

Out in the country, some free-range fatties have sauntered onto the scene.
[VERB] If you saunter somewhere, you walk there in a slow, casual way.
*시야에 들어오다.


burros [|bʊrəʊ]1

proffer [prɒfər] 1

In Arizona, wild burros have ballooned into genuine fat asses thanks to carrot-proffering tourists.
[NOUN] a donkey, esp one used as a pack animal
[VERB] [FORMAL] If you proffer something to someone, you hold it towards them so that they can take it or touch it. 실제적 cf)off(추상적, 실제적)


paunchy [pɔ:ntʃi] 1

The Lake Tahoe area’s garbage-eating black bears are unusually paunchy.
[ADJ] A man who is paunchy has a fat stomach.


feral [ferəl, fɪər-] 1

One scientific study in 2010 found that feral rats collected near Baltimore had grown heavier over time.
[ADJ] [FORMAL] Feral animals are wild animals that are not owned or controlled by anyone, especially ones that belong to species which are normally owned and kept by people.


truism [tru:ɪzəm] 1

commensal [kəmɛnsəl] 2

But is that truism breaking down for the commensal animals—like pizza-scarfing squirrels—that live in and around our fat- and sugar-laden “toxic” food environment?
[NOUN] A truism is a statement that is generally accepted as obviously true and is repeated so often that it has become boring. 사실이라 치부되는 것.
[ADJ] (of two different species of plant or animal) living in close association, such that one species benefits without harming the other (인간과 같은 환경에서)공생하는


nigh [naɪ]

Is the Age of Fat Pigeons nigh?
[ADV] [OLD-FASHIONED] If an event is nigh, it will happen very soon.고어=near


chunky [tʃʌŋki] 1

Obesity researcher David Allison was on the team that identified the chunky urban rats.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] A chunky person is broad and heavy.


vermin [vɜ:rmɪn] 1
alleyway [æliweɪ] 1

For their study of vermin in the field, they reanalyzed weight data from rats captured in Baltimore alleyways as well as from rural rats trapped on parklands and farms between 1948 and 2006.
[NOUN] Vermin are small animals such as rats and mice which cause problems to humans by carrying disease and damaging crops or food. 해로운 동물
[NOUN] An alleyway is the same as an alley.
[NOUN] An alley is a narrow passage or street with buildings or walls on both sides.골목길


husky [hʌski] 1

subsist [səbsɪst]2

slug [slʌg]

I interviewed other rat experts who agreed that city rats tend to be huskier than their wild siblings, which subsist on bugs, slugs, acorns, and one another instead of half-eaten bagels and chicken wings.
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] [INFORMAL] If you describe a man as husky, you think that he is tall, strong, and attractive.
[VERB] [FORMAL] If people subsist, they are just able to obtain the food or money that they need in order to stay alive. 근근히 먹고 살다.


forage [fɔ:rɪdʒ] 1

Scientists in Colorado report that shorter winters have given yellow-bellied marmots more time to forage and fill up their yellow bellies.
[VERB] When animals forage, they search for food.


닭둘기의 시대가 우리에게 찾아온 것이었을까요?

the Age of Fat Pigeons was upon us?
*be upon somebody
:to be going to happen very soon


invertebrate [ɪnvɜ:rtɪbrət] 2

Indeterminate growth is common among invertebrates such as earthworms and silverfish, but some mammals do it, too.
[NOUN] [TECHNICAL] An invertebrate is a creature that does not have a spine, for example an insect, a worm, or an octopus. 무척추동물
cf)bertebrates 척추동물=animals with a backbone.


pachyderm [|pækɪ|dɜ:m] 1 2

A study from last year on crop-raiding African elephants showed that the well-nourished bulls got taller and longer and stronger and heavier than their pachyderm peers.
[NOUN] any very large thick-skinned mammal, such as an elephant, rhinoceros, or hippopotamus
(전문 용어) 후피 동물(코끼리처럼 가죽이 두꺼운 동물)