Flashcards in Lesson86 Aiming to Learn as We Do, a Machine Teaches Itself Deck (13):
Give a computer a task that can be crisply defined and the machine bests humans nearly every time.
cf)crisp wind 늦가을 바람
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] Crisp cloth or paper is clean and has no creases in it.
[ADJ] [approval] Weather that is pleasantly fresh, cold, and dry can be described as crisp.
[Verb][Formal] to gain an advantage over or defeat an opponent=beat
be no match for
Yet when problems are nuanced or ambiguous, or require combining varied sources of information, computers are no match for human intelligence.
[NOUN] A nuance is a small difference in sound, feeling, appearance, or meaning.
*not be as good, etc. as somebody/something; not be able to compete successfully against somebody/something
unravel [ʌnrævəl] 2
Few challenges in computing loom larger than unraveling semantics, understanding the meaning of language.
*to seem important, worrying, and difficult to avoid.
[VERB] If you unravel a mystery or puzzle, or if it unravels, it gradually becomes clearer and you can work out the answer to it.
One reason is that the meaning of words and phrases hinges not only on their context, but also background knowledge that humans learn over years, day after day.
*if an action, a result, etc. hinges on/upon something, it depends on it completely or is strongly influenced by it
grant [grɑ:nt, grænt] 1
The team is supported by grants from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and Google, and tap into a research supercomputing cluster provided by Yahoo.
[NOUN] A grant is an amount of money that a government or other institution gives to an individual or to an organization for a particular purpose such as education or home improvements.
[VERB] If you tap a resource or situation, you make use of it by getting from it something that you need or want.
알래스카의 빙하 속 오일을 쓰기 시작할 때 쓰이는 맥락
The team has been fine-tuning a computer system that is trying to master semantics by learning more like a human.
[VERB] If you fine-tune something, you make very small and precise changes to it in order to make it as successful or effective as it possibly can be.
Its beating hardware heart is a sleek, silver-gray computer that resides in a basement computer center at the university.
[ADJ] Sleek vehicles, furniture, or other objects look smooth, shiny, and expensive.
set loose on
The computer was primed by the researchers with some basic knowledge in various categories and set loose on the Web with a mission to teach itself.
[VERB] If you prime someone to do something, you prepare them to do it, for example by giving them information about it beforehand.
*~에 풀어주다 "자! 물어와!"
cumulative [kju:mjʊlətɪv] 1
For all the advances in computer science, we still don't have a computer that can learn as humans do, cumulatively, over the long term.
[ADJ] If a series of events have a cumulative effect, each event makes the effect greater.
make an impressive showing
The NELL has made an impressive showing so far.
*make an impressive showing에서 showing은 performace를 의미함: 좋은 performance를 보여주었다.
Dr. Mitchell 말하길 훨씬더 많은 사실을 모으게 되면 그것이 NELL의 학습 알고리즘을 발전시켜 시간이 지나면서 Web에서 좀 더 정확하고 효과적으로 정보를 찾을 수 있게 할 것이다.
cf) (혼이 난 상황 이후) 더 똑똑한 선생이었다면 학생이 수업에 지각했다는 이유로 처벌하진 않았을 것이다.
A larger pool of facts, Dr. Mitchell says, will help refine NELL's learning algorithms so that it finds facts on the Web more accurately and more efficiently over time.
*동사: will--> 주어 가정의 의미 내포.
cf) A smarter teacher would never punish students for being late for class.
Many of these efforts tap the Web as a rich trove of text to assemble structured ontologies- formal decription of concepts and relationships- to help computers mimic human understanding.
[NOUN}If you describe something or someone as a treasure trove of a particular thing, you mean that they are a very good or rich source of that thing.=rich trove