Lesson86 Aiming to Learn as We Do, a Machine Teaches Itself Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lesson86 Aiming to Learn as We Do, a Machine Teaches Itself Deck (13):
1

crisp [krɪsp]

best [best]

Give a computer a task that can be crisply defined and the machine bests humans nearly every time.
cf)crisp wind 늦가을 바람
[ADJ] [usu ADJ n] Crisp cloth or paper is clean and has no creases in it.
[ADJ] [approval] Weather that is pleasantly fresh, cold, and dry can be described as crisp.
[Verb][Formal] to gain an advantage over or defeat an opponent=beat

2

nuance [nu:ɑ:ns]

be no match for

Yet when problems are nuanced or ambiguous, or require combining varied sources of information, computers are no match for human intelligence.
[NOUN] A nuance is a small difference in sound, feeling, appearance, or meaning.
*not be as good, etc. as somebody/something; not be able to compete successfully against somebody/something

3

loom large

unravel [ʌnrævəl] 2

Few challenges in computing loom larger than unraveling semantics, understanding the meaning of language.
*to seem important, worrying, and difficult to avoid.
[VERB] If you unravel a mystery or puzzle, or if it unravels, it gradually becomes clearer and you can work out the answer to it.

4

hinge on

One reason is that the meaning of words and phrases hinges not only on their context, but also background knowledge that humans learn over years, day after day.
*if an action, a result, etc. hinges on/upon something, it depends on it completely or is strongly influenced by it

5

grant [grɑ:nt, grænt] 1

tap[tæp] into

The team is supported by grants from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and Google, and tap into a research supercomputing cluster provided by Yahoo.
[NOUN] A grant is an amount of money that a government or other institution gives to an individual or to an organization for a particular purpose such as education or home improvements.
[VERB] If you tap a resource or situation, you make use of it by getting from it something that you need or want.
알래스카의 빙하 속 오일을 쓰기 시작할 때 쓰이는 맥락

6

fine-tune

The team has been fine-tuning a computer system that is trying to master semantics by learning more like a human.
[VERB] If you fine-tune something, you make very small and precise changes to it in order to make it as successful or effective as it possibly can be.

7

sleek [sli:k]

Its beating hardware heart is a sleek, silver-gray computer that resides in a basement computer center at the university.
[ADJ] Sleek vehicles, furniture, or other objects look smooth, shiny, and expensive.

8

prime [praɪm]

set loose on

The computer was primed by the researchers with some basic knowledge in various categories and set loose on the Web with a mission to teach itself.
[VERB] If you prime someone to do something, you prepare them to do it, for example by giving them information about it beforehand.
*~에 풀어주다 "자! 물어와!"

9

For all
cumulative [kju:mjʊlətɪv] 1

For all the advances in computer science, we still don't have a computer that can learn as humans do, cumulatively, over the long term.
*=although
[ADJ] If a series of events have a cumulative effect, each event makes the effect greater.

10

make an impressive showing

The NELL has made an impressive showing so far.
*make an impressive showing에서 showing은 performace를 의미함: 좋은 performance를 보여주었다.

11

Dr. Mitchell 말하길 훨씬더 많은 사실을 모으게 되면 그것이 NELL의 학습 알고리즘을 발전시켜 시간이 지나면서 Web에서 좀 더 정확하고 효과적으로 정보를 찾을 수 있게 할 것이다.
cf) (혼이 난 상황 이후) 더 똑똑한 선생이었다면 학생이 수업에 지각했다는 이유로 처벌하진 않았을 것이다.

A larger pool of facts, Dr. Mitchell says, will help refine NELL's learning algorithms so that it finds facts on the Web more accurately and more efficiently over time.
*동사: will--> 주어 가정의 의미 내포.
cf) A smarter teacher would never punish students for being late for class.

12

trove

Many of these efforts tap the Web as a rich trove of text to assemble structured ontologies- formal decription of concepts and relationships- to help computers mimic human understanding.
[NOUN}If you describe something or someone as a treasure trove of a particular thing, you mean that they are a very good or rich source of that thing.=rich trove

13

open the door to

Today, ever-faster computers, an explosion of Web data and improved software techniques are opening the door to rapid progress.
*provide somebody with the chance or opportunity to do something new, interesting, etc