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Flashcards in Levels of Analysis Deck (51):
1

What is Psychology

The study of human thought and behaviour

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Experimental Psychology

the process of collecting, evaluating and interpreting information to draw sound conculsions

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Aristotle/Plato

Contemplated fundamental questions of: "How do we learn and remember?" "Where does knowledge come from?

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Descartes

The mind and body are distinct entities that were causally linked in a dualistic relationship.
-The mind controls the body
-the body feeds the mind info about outside world through sense.

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Ebbinghaus

"Psychology has a long past but a short history"

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Muller

-Neurotransmitters in nerves are coded like electrical impulses that travel along different channels.
-particular parts of the body are connected to specific areas of the brain that serve different fucntions

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Helmholtz

Measured speed of nerve impulses --> 90 ft. per second (not as fast as electricity)

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Florens

Used Muller's brain technique and destroyed different areas of an animal's brain. He learned which brain regions controlled heart rate, breathing and the processing of visual and auditory reflexes

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Wundt

Opened first lab devoted to the study of psychology. He believed that conscious experience could be studies using the same methods that chemists and physicists use. He launched the first psychological journal devoted to psychology.

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Hall

Opened first psych lab in North America and founded the APA

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Psychological Level of Analysis

Most intuitive. Concerned with that lies within a subject's mind. How do thoughts, memories and emotions motivate our actions?

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Biological Level of Anaysis

Physiological mechanisms that underly thoughts and behaviour.
Structure and Function of the brain, genetic factors, molecular effects of neurotransmitters of hormones.

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Environmental Level of Analysis

Social, cultural and learning interactions that influence thought and behaviour.

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Levels of Analysis

The basic type of approach taken to a particular question. Includes: Psychological, Biological, Environmental

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Perspectives in Psychology

have specific goals and may involve one or more levels of analysis. Include:
Behavioural, Evolution, Neuroscience, Socio Cultural, Cognitive, Development.

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Watson

Formalized methodology of research methods of the behaviourist field of psychology.
Says that overt behaviour is the only valid means of psychology.
--Black box theory

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Watson's Black Box theory

Scientists should view the mind as an off-limits black box that takes input and makes output.
What happens inside the black box should be outside the domain of science, at least for the present.

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Skinner

internal events exist, but are impossible to measure scientifically.
Everything we want to know about an organism can be gained by studying its behaviour.
pleasant = repeated behaviour
unpleasant = non-repeated behaviour

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Cognitive Perspective

proper scientific methods can be applied to study internal mental processes tat are necessary to fully understand behaviour

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Behavioural Perspective

a level of analysis concerned only with explaining psychological phenomena using learning methodologies, treating the mind as a black box.

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Models

Abstract representations of how the mind functions.
Can be used to make predictions and design experiments.
Provide a framework to describe data and develop interesting, testable questions.
Aren't necessarily accurate, just the best and more useful thing at the time until something better comes along.

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Reductionism

All human behaviour can be reduced to the biology of the brain. However, the problem can actually be reduced to the cellular, molecular, atomic and subatomic mechanisms.
if we continue to break a problem into smaller and smaller parts, we eventually become unable to answer larger questions in a meaningful manner.

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Crick

Can reductionism and advanced technology be used to fully explain all of human behaviour?

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Structural Neuroimaging

Allows us to see the physical makeup of the brain

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Functional Neuroimaging

Allows us to see what the brain is actually doing

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Proximate Versus Ultimate Causes

?

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Developmental Perspective

How genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behaviours across a lifespan.

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Evolutionary Perspective

How genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behaviours across the history of a species

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Habituation

a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations. As a procedure, habituation is the repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus that results in the decline of the elicited behaviour (the process of habituation).

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Socio Cultural Perspective

the study of:
the influence of an individual on a group
the influence of a group on an individual
the influence of one group on another

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Applied Research

research conducted in order to apply the results to a known practical problem

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Basic Research

research conducted in order to acquire new knowledge, without necessarily having an immediate application for this knowledge

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Behavioural Neuroscience

the study of the relationship between behaviour and the physical functioning of the brain and nervous system

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Clinical Psychology

the application of psychological knowledge and principles to the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders

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Cognitive Psychology

the study of internal processes, such as memory, attention, and decision making, involved in mental activity

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Comparative Psychology

concerns how behaviours have adapted over evolutionary time to deal with selective environmental pressures by comparing behaviour across multiple species

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Functionalism

the view that psychology should be the study if the adaptive functions of consciousness.

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Geslat

a school of psychology that emphasizes perception and problem solving

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Humanist Psychology

a primarily therapeutic psychological movement focused on providing acceptance and encouraging person growth

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Introspection

the process of examining the contents of one's own consciousness

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Neuroimaging

the process of capturing structural and functional information concerning the brain and nervous system

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Principle of Psychophysical Isomorphism

the Gestalt principle that the conscious experience of an event is directly related to the physical reality of the event.

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Principle of Totality

The Gestalt principle that analysis of any conscious experience must include all mental and physical aspects of a person's situation

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Psychoanalysis

the school of psychology, founded by Freud that emphasized unconscious conflicts and desires as the motivators of behaviour

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Psychodynamic Theory

a theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour

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Psychoneuroimmunology

a field of study involving the relations among psychological events and the function of the immune system

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Psychophysics

a study in the relation between human perception and physical reality

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Repression

the psychoanalytic concept that traumatic memories may be pushed into the unconscious in order to free the conscious mind from having to deal with them.

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Self-Concept

a person's internal image of themselves, which is central to humanist therapeutic techniques

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Structuralism

the first school of thought developed in psychology, where the focus was on detailed introspective examination of the contents of consciousness

51

The Unconscious

the pscyhoanalytic concept of a portion of the mind not accessible to conscious thought.