Flashcards in Levels of Analysis Deck (51):
What is Psychology
The study of human thought and behaviour
the process of collecting, evaluating and interpreting information to draw sound conculsions
Contemplated fundamental questions of: "How do we learn and remember?" "Where does knowledge come from?
The mind and body are distinct entities that were causally linked in a dualistic relationship.
-The mind controls the body
-the body feeds the mind info about outside world through sense.
"Psychology has a long past but a short history"
-Neurotransmitters in nerves are coded like electrical impulses that travel along different channels.
-particular parts of the body are connected to specific areas of the brain that serve different fucntions
Measured speed of nerve impulses --> 90 ft. per second (not as fast as electricity)
Used Muller's brain technique and destroyed different areas of an animal's brain. He learned which brain regions controlled heart rate, breathing and the processing of visual and auditory reflexes
Opened first lab devoted to the study of psychology. He believed that conscious experience could be studies using the same methods that chemists and physicists use. He launched the first psychological journal devoted to psychology.
Opened first psych lab in North America and founded the APA
Psychological Level of Analysis
Most intuitive. Concerned with that lies within a subject's mind. How do thoughts, memories and emotions motivate our actions?
Biological Level of Anaysis
Physiological mechanisms that underly thoughts and behaviour.
Structure and Function of the brain, genetic factors, molecular effects of neurotransmitters of hormones.
Environmental Level of Analysis
Social, cultural and learning interactions that influence thought and behaviour.
Levels of Analysis
The basic type of approach taken to a particular question. Includes: Psychological, Biological, Environmental
Perspectives in Psychology
have specific goals and may involve one or more levels of analysis. Include:
Behavioural, Evolution, Neuroscience, Socio Cultural, Cognitive, Development.
Formalized methodology of research methods of the behaviourist field of psychology.
Says that overt behaviour is the only valid means of psychology.
--Black box theory
Watson's Black Box theory
Scientists should view the mind as an off-limits black box that takes input and makes output.
What happens inside the black box should be outside the domain of science, at least for the present.
internal events exist, but are impossible to measure scientifically.
Everything we want to know about an organism can be gained by studying its behaviour.
pleasant = repeated behaviour
unpleasant = non-repeated behaviour
proper scientific methods can be applied to study internal mental processes tat are necessary to fully understand behaviour
a level of analysis concerned only with explaining psychological phenomena using learning methodologies, treating the mind as a black box.
Abstract representations of how the mind functions.
Can be used to make predictions and design experiments.
Provide a framework to describe data and develop interesting, testable questions.
Aren't necessarily accurate, just the best and more useful thing at the time until something better comes along.
All human behaviour can be reduced to the biology of the brain. However, the problem can actually be reduced to the cellular, molecular, atomic and subatomic mechanisms.
if we continue to break a problem into smaller and smaller parts, we eventually become unable to answer larger questions in a meaningful manner.
Can reductionism and advanced technology be used to fully explain all of human behaviour?
Allows us to see the physical makeup of the brain
Allows us to see what the brain is actually doing
Proximate Versus Ultimate Causes
How genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behaviours across a lifespan.
How genetic and environmental factors contribute to changes in behaviours across the history of a species
a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations. As a procedure, habituation is the repeated presentation of an eliciting stimulus that results in the decline of the elicited behaviour (the process of habituation).
Socio Cultural Perspective
the study of:
the influence of an individual on a group
the influence of a group on an individual
the influence of one group on another
research conducted in order to apply the results to a known practical problem
research conducted in order to acquire new knowledge, without necessarily having an immediate application for this knowledge
the study of the relationship between behaviour and the physical functioning of the brain and nervous system
the application of psychological knowledge and principles to the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders
the study of internal processes, such as memory, attention, and decision making, involved in mental activity
concerns how behaviours have adapted over evolutionary time to deal with selective environmental pressures by comparing behaviour across multiple species
the view that psychology should be the study if the adaptive functions of consciousness.
a school of psychology that emphasizes perception and problem solving
a primarily therapeutic psychological movement focused on providing acceptance and encouraging person growth
the process of examining the contents of one's own consciousness
the process of capturing structural and functional information concerning the brain and nervous system
Principle of Psychophysical Isomorphism
the Gestalt principle that the conscious experience of an event is directly related to the physical reality of the event.
Principle of Totality
The Gestalt principle that analysis of any conscious experience must include all mental and physical aspects of a person's situation
the school of psychology, founded by Freud that emphasized unconscious conflicts and desires as the motivators of behaviour
a theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour
a field of study involving the relations among psychological events and the function of the immune system
a study in the relation between human perception and physical reality
the psychoanalytic concept that traumatic memories may be pushed into the unconscious in order to free the conscious mind from having to deal with them.
a person's internal image of themselves, which is central to humanist therapeutic techniques
the first school of thought developed in psychology, where the focus was on detailed introspective examination of the contents of consciousness