Levels of organisation in the nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Levels of organisation in the nervous system Deck (53):
1

What is the nervous system divided into?

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

2

What is the CNS divided into?

Brain
Spinal cord

3

What is the PNS sub divisions?

Sensory (afferent) division
Motor (efferent) division

4

What is the sensory (afferent) division made up of?

Somatic sensory neurons
Visceral sensory neurons

5

What is the motor (efferent) division made up of?

Autonomic nervous system (involuntary)
Somatic nervous system (voluntary)

6

What are the 2 divisions of the Autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic division
Parasympathetic division

7

What is the spinothalamic pathway made up of?

Grey matter
White matter
Ganglion
Nucleus
Tract
Pathway

8

What is grey matter?

High concentration of nerve cell bodies

9

What is white matter?

High concentration of nerve fibres/axons

10

Why is white matter white?

myelin gives the white appearance

11

What is ganglion?

Collection of nerve cells in CNS with particular function

12

What is a tract?

Nerve axons belonging to neurones of the same functional type (e.g. spinothalamic tract)

13

What is a pathway?

Collective set of neurons in conveying a signal from periphery to the cortex

14

What are spinothalamic neurons?

Long axon up to the brain terminates at the thalamus

15

What is the spinothalamic tract?

Sensory pathway from skin to the thalamus

16

What is the PNS formed of?

Afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerve fibres

17

Where do the nerve fibres from the PNS emerge?

From brain and spinal cord and innervate every structure in the body

18

How many cranial nerves arise from the base of the brain?

12 pairs

19

What do these cranial nerves from the base of the brain innervate?

Head (including special sense organs)

20

Are cranial nerves specific?

Yes, some are purely sensory, some are purely motor

21

Where does the vagus nerve also innervate?

Some organs of the upper body e.g. heart

22

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

33 pairs

23

What do the spinal nerves innervate?

Remainder of the body

24

Where do afferent/sensory axons end?

Sensory receptors

25

Where do efferent/motor fibres end?

In effectors (muscle)

26

What are spinal nerves?

Elongation of the brain

27

What are spinal nerve dermatomes?

Skin areas innervated by a single spinal nerve

28

What do spinal nerves do before reaching the spinal cord?

Divide into Dorsal root and ventral root

29

What is the dorsal root?

Sensory (afferent) fibres (cell bodies= dorsal root ganglion)

30

What is the ventral root?

Motor (efferent) fibres (cell bodies= motonucleus)

31

What shape is the cross section of the spinal cord?

Butterfly shaped grey matter

32

What is the dorsal horn?

Mainly sensory

33

What is the ventral horn?

Mainly motor

34

What is in the outer white matter?

Ascending and descending axons

35

What is the brain split into?

Brainstem and Forebrain

36

What is the Brainstem?

Most primitive part of the brain- vital function
Brain stem reticular formation e.g. arousal vs. sleep

37

What is the brainstem split into?

Hindbrain and midbrain

38

What makes up the hindbrain?

Cerebellum
Pons
Medulla

39

What makes up the midbrain?

Tectum

40

What is the cerebellum?

Involved in motor control e.g. coordination and motor learning

41

What is the pons?

Largely white matter- connections between cortex and spinal cord, cortex and cerebellum

42

What is the medulla?

Relay nuclei for sensory pathways from spinal cord and cranial nerve and for descending pathways
Contains autonomic control centres

43

What is the tectum made up of?

Optic and auditory tectum

44

What is the optic tectum?

Visual input

45

What is the auditory tectum?

Auditory input

46

What is the orientation reaction in the tectum?

Head and eye movements to foveate moving objects in peripheral visual field or look in direction of source of sound

47

What is the Forebrain?

Responsible for higher sensory, motor and cognitive functions

48

What makes up the forebrain?

Diencephalon
Telencephalon

49

What makes up the diencephalon?

Thalamus (relay nucleus)
Hypothalamus
Basal ganglia

50

What makes up the telencephalon?

Cortex

51

What is the thalamus?

Group of sensory relay nuclei projecting to cortex
Pathways serving vision, audition, olfaction, taste and somatic

52

What is the hypothalamus?

Control of autonomic functions

53

What is the basal ganglia?

Control of movement
3 sets of nucleus- Sub thalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, thalamus