LEWIS: Energy systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LEWIS: Energy systems Deck (46):
1

Anaerobic energy systems:

ATP stores
ATP-PC
Lactic acid

2

Site of reaction for ATP stores:

Sarcoplasm (all living cells)

3

Fuels used for ATP stores:

ATP

4

Active enzymes for ATP stores:

ATPase

5

Molecules of ATP produced:

1

6

Advantages of ATP stores:

Instant high intensity energy sources

7

Drawbacks of ATP stores:

Only lasts a couple of seconds of intense exercise

8

Training methods to improve ATP stores:

-High intensity Plyometrics
-High intensity Strength/weight training (80% 1RM)

9

Adaptations following training on ATP stores:

Increased ATP stores

10

Sports using ATP stores:

Shot putt
Weight lifting

11

Site of reaction for ATP-PC energy system:

sarcoplasm

12

Fuels used in ATP-PC energy system:

Phosphocreatine (PC)

13

Active enzymes for ATP-PC energy system:

Creatine kinase

14

Molecules of ATP produced for ATP-PC energy system:

1

15

Advantages of ATP-PC energy system:

-Quickly resynthesises ATP
-No fatigue by-product
-Phosphocreatine stores restore quickly
-Can extend time through creatine supplementation

16

Drawbacks of ATP-PC energy system:

-Lasts 8-10 seconds of maximum effort
-PC is very limited within muscle
-PC can only be replenished when there is sufficient energy available in the body (aerobic pathway)

17

Training methods to improve ATP-PC energy system:

High intensity plyometrics
High intensity weight training
High intensity interval training

18

Adaptations following training on ATP-PC energy system:

-Increased PC stores
-Increased enzymes for anaerobic
-Greater power output
-Delay in ATP-PC to lactic threshold
-More energy available more rapidly

19

Sports using ATP-PC energy system:

-100m sprint
-high intensity activities lasting less than 10 seconds

20

Site of reaction for lactic acid system:

Sarcoplasm

21

Fuels used for lactic acid system:

glycogen/glucose

22

Active enzymes for lactic acid system:

glycolytic enzymes

23

Molecules of ATP produced for lactic acid system:

2

24

Advantages of lactic acid system:

-lasts 30-60 seconds
-can last up to 3 minutes depending on intensity
-releases energy quite quickly
-can supply energy in high intensity, short-term activities
-presence of oxygen, lactic acid can be converted back into liver glycogen or used as a fuel through oxidation into CO2 and H2O
-Can be used for a sprint finish at very end of aerobic events where intensity increases (e.g. 5000m)

25

Drawbacks of lactic acid system:

-lactic acid as fatigue by-product
-Higher fatigue
-increased acidity, due to LA, denatures enzymes and prevents them from increasing the rate at which chemical reactions occur
-Muscle action = inhibited
-Oxygen debt

26

Training methods to improve lactic acid system:

-High intensity circuit, fartlek training
-Moderate-high intensity interval
-Endurance weight training (60-80% max HR)

27

Adaptations following training to LA system:

-Increase OBLA, enabling workout at higher level
-Produce more glycolytic enzymes
-Increased VO2 max

28

Sports using LA system:

-400m run/hurdler
-100m swim
-high intensity activities with a duration of approx. 1 minute

29

Aerobic energy system =

aerobic energy system

30

Site of reaction for aerobic energy system:

glycolysis = sarcoplasm
Krebs cycle = matrix of mitochondria
ETC = cristae of mitochondria

31

Active enzymes in aerobic energy system:

KC = Lipoprotein lipase
(PROCESS OF BETA OXIDATION)

32

Molecules of ATP produced in aerobic energy system:

G=2
KC=2
ETC=34
OVERALL = 38

33

Advantages of aerobic energy system:

-38 ATP molecules produced from glucose/glycogen molecule
-Slow twitch fibres provide a continuous supply of energy over a long period of time
-No fatigue by-products
-Large stores of glycogen and triglycerides - long duration

34

Fuels used in aerobic energy system:

G = Glycogen/glucose
KC=Fatty acids

35

Drawbacks of aerobic energy system:

-Requires oxygen = lower intensity/3 minute threshold
-Relies heavily on glycogen stores initially
-Many reactions = while for oxygen to become available to meet the demands of the activity and to ensure glycogen and fatty acids are completely broken down
-Fatty acid transportation to muscles is low and requires 15% more oxygen to be broken down than glycogen

36

Training methods to improve aerobic energy system:

-continuous training (60-80% max HR)
-low intensity fartlek training

37

Adaptations following training to aerobic energy system:

-Beta oxidation =more efficient
-Increased oxidative (aerobic) enzymes
-Greater ability to store muscle glycogen
-Increased store of triglycerides

38

Sports using aerobic energy system:

-marathon
-1500m
-low-intensity activities with a duration of longer than 1-2min

39

Beta-oxidation is the process where fatty acids are broken down int he mitochondria to generate acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the

Krebs cycle

40

More ATP can be made from 1 mole of fatty acids than from one mole of glycogen, reason why the predominant energy source in long-duration exercise is

fatty acids

41

Process of ATP-PC system:
Anaerobic
PC is stored in the muscles and is broken dow to creatine and phosphate by the enzyme creatine kinase... as a result

energy is released for ATP re-synthesis

42

Process of lactic acid system:
Anaerobic
Glycolysis (glycogen broken down using glycolytic enzymes and is then broken down into pyruvic acid. In the absence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid and

2 molecules of ATP are produced

43

Process of aerobic energy system:
3 stages:

glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Electron transfer chain

44

Glycolysis: glycogen is broken down into glucose which is then broken down into

pyruvic acid

45

Krebs cycle: pyruvic acid diffuses into matrix of mitochondria and a complex cycle of reactions occurs. The reactions result in the production of 2 molecules of ATP and CO2 and hydrogen. The CO2 is breathed out and the hydrogen is taken to the

ETC

46

ETC: Hydrogen from KC carried by hydrogen carriers. Occurs in the cristae of the mitochondria and the hydrogen splits into hydrogen ions and electrons. They are charged with potential energy. The hydrogen ions are oxidised to form water while the hydrogen electrons provide the energy to

re-synthesise ATP - 34 molecules of ATP produced