Lifecycles - Specific Findings Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > Lifecycles - Specific Findings > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lifecycles - Specific Findings Deck (25):
1

alpha-fetoprotein

Tumor marker - Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor of infants/young children

2

Schiller-Duval bodies

Seen in 50% of yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumors of infants/young children

3

17-hydroxyprogesterone

Intermediate metabolic product in the conversion of pregnenolone to mineralocorticoids and cortisol

Elevated levels seen in 21-hydroxylase deficiency

4

"Coffee bean" nucleus

Classical finding associated with Brenner ovarian tumor

5

Honeycomb uterus

Ultrasound finding classic for molar pregnancy

6

"Cluster of grapes" structure

Ultrasound finding classic for molar pregnancy

7

Specific treatment for HER2+ breast cancers

Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

8

Paget Cells

Large cells seen in the epidermis surrounded by a clear halo

If seen in the breast, suggestive of underlying malignancy

If seen in the vulva, NOT associated with underlying malignancy

9

Maternal serum screening findings - Edwards Disease

Decreased AFP, bHCG, and Estriol
Normal Inhibin A

10

Koilocytes

Cells with wrinkled, "raisin-like" nuclei and a zone of perinuclear clearing ("halo")

Pathognomonic for HPV-associated lesions:

Condyloma (HPV 6, 11)
Cervical dysplasia/carcinoma (HPV 16, 18)

11

What pathological condition of a fetus is associated with elevated AFP in the amniotic fluid / maternal serum?

Neural tube defect

12

Signet ring cells

Mucin-secreting cells

Key finding in Krukenberg Tumor - metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach to the ovaries bilaterally

13

Trichomonas - PE & Lab Findings

Vaginitis with foul-smelling, greenish, froshy discharge
Friable ("Strawberry") Cervix

Motile cells on wet prep

14

Lab findings in PCOS

LH : FSH ratio > 2.1 : 1 in the first 5 days of the cycle

Elevated androgens, both testosterone (ovarian) and DHEA-S (adrenal)

15

Klinefelter Syndrome - Karyotype finding

Genotype 47 XXY

Inactivated X chromosome (Barr body) seen on karyotype

16

Klinefelter Syndrome - Lab findings

Slightly low testosterone with elevated LH

Indicates primary hypogonadism

17

"String of Pearls" appearance of ovaries on US

This is a finding seen in PCOS

The "string of pearls" are actually peripherally located follicular cysts

18

Reinke's Crystals

Commonly seen with Leydig cell tumors of the testicle

19

Pre-natal screening findings consistent with Down Syndrome

First trimester ultrasound shows increased nuchal translucency and hypoplastic nasal bone

Second trimester Quad screen shows:

Decreased AFP
Increased B-hCG
Decreased Estriol
Increased Inhibin A

20

Prenatal screening findings consistent with Edwards syndrome

Second trimester Quad screen shows:

Decreased AFP, B-hCG, estriol, and decreased/normal inhibin A

21

Prenatal screening findings consistent with Patau syndrome

First trimester pregnancy screen shows:

Decreased B-hCG
Decreased PAPP-A
Increased nuchal translucency

22

Call-Exner Bodies

Histological structures resembling primordial ovarian follicles

Classic histological finding in Granulosa cell ovarian cancer

23

What is the "Discriminatory threshold" for b-HCG?

1,500-2,000 IU/uL

Above this level, and intrauterine gestational sac can usually be visualized by trans-vaginal ultrasound; its absence is highly suggestive of ectopic pregnancy

24

At what rate does b-HCG increase?

b-hCG usually doubles every 1.5 to 2 days up to 7 weeks of pregnancy; increases at a slower rate may indicate non-viable pregnancy

25

Endometrial stripe

A region of thickened endometrial tissue visualized by altered echogenicity on US

Often seen in the setting of post-menopausal exposure to unopposed estrogen; concerning for Granulosa cell tumor