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Flashcards in Limbic System Deck (55):
1

Where does the septal area project?

hypothalamus and brainstem & cingulate gyrus

2

Where does the cingulate gyrus receive input?

anterior nucleus of thalamus & septal area

3

What is the name for the anterior portion of the parahippocampal gyrus?

entorhinal area

4

The entorhinal area, uncus and amygdala all share what function(s)?

olfactory & limbic functions

5

What nucleus is located immediately beneath the uncus?

amygdaloid nucleus

6

Where do the mammillary bodies receive input?

hippocampal formation

7

Where do mammillary bodies project?

anterior nucleus of the thalamus

8

Fibres comprising the fornix arise from what structure

hippocampal formation

9

What nuclei are included in the septum pellucidum?

septal nuclei

10

What connects septal area to the hypothalamus and brainstem?

medial forebrain bundle

11

What connects mammillary nuclei to the anterior thalamic nucleus?

mammillothalamic tract

12

How many cell layers in the hippocampal gyrus?

3

13

How many cell layers in the dentate gyrus?

3

14

What is the subiculum?

region of cortex at the top margin of the parahippocampal gyrus
immediately below dentate gyrus

15

What is the alveus?

collection of fibres covering surface of hippocampus
axons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in the subiculum and hippocampus

16

Describe the structures of the fornix and where they are derived

Alveus fibres covering surface of hippocampus aggregate as fimbriae of fornix --> crura -->body --> columns

17

Where is the hippocampus located?

floor of inferior horn of lateral ventricle

18

What type of cortex is the hippocampus?

archicortex

19

What are the three layers of the hippocampus?

molecular layer
pyramidal layer
polymorphic layer

20

What type of cortex is the dentate gyrus?

archicortex

21

What are the three layers of the dentate gyrus?

molecular layer
granular layer
multiform layer

22

What comprises the hippocampal formation?

hippocampus
dentate gyrus
parahippocampal gyrus (subiculum)

23

What are two sources of axons leaving the hippocampal formation? (contribute to alveus)

hippocampus
subiculum
(pyramidal cells)

24

What do the dentate granular cell projections contribute to?

local circuit connections within the hippocampal formation

25

What are the two divisions of the amygdala?

ventrolateral (basolateral) division
dorsomedial division

26

What division of the amygdala is associated with the limbic system?

ventrolateral (basolateral) division

27

What is associated with the dorsomedial division of the amygdala?

olfactory system

28

Where does CNI project directly to cortex?

dosomedial division of amygdala

29

Where does the septal region communicate?

cingulate gyrus
hypothalamus
brainstem

30

True or False: The cingulate gyrus is continuous with the parahippocampal gyrus.

True

31

Where are the majority of fibres in the fornix derived from?

cells in the subiculum

32

Where do fibres of the fornix project to?

anterior thalamic nucleus
septal nuclei (precomissural bundle)
mammillary bodies

33

Where do fibres of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala project to?

stria terminalis - projects to hypothalamus and septal nuclei

34

Where does the septal nucleus project?

hypothalamus & autonomic nuclei of stem & cord (medial forebrain bundle)
cingulate gyrus

35

The mammillary bodies are reciprocally connected to to the anterior thalamic nucleus via what tract?

mamillothalamic tract

36

Where does the anterior thalamic nucleus project?

cingulate gyrus

37

Where does the cingulate gyrus project?

association areas of frontal, parietal, temporal and possibly occipital cortex
parahippocampal gyrus (cingulum)

38

What procedure results in Kluver-Bucy syndrome?

bilateral temporal lobectomy

39

What are the S&S of Kluver-Bucy syndrome?

docility
hyperphagic
excessive sexual activity
inability to learn new tasks
impairment of ability to form new memories
visual agnosia

40

What results from stimulation of the amygdala?

expression of fear and rage, arrest reaction (animals)
feelings of anxiety (humans)

41

What is Korsakoff's syndrome?

inability to form new memories

42

How does Korsakoff's syndrome occur? IN what conditions is it seen?

damage or degeneration particularly in mammillary bodies and dorsomedial thalamus
chronic alcoholics
malnutrition

43

Aspects of limbic function related to emotional states are based on what structure?

amygdala

44

Aspects of limbic function related to memory are based on what structure(s)?

hippocampal
dentate

45

What happened to HM when he had medial temporal lobe removed bilaterally?

unable to transfer short term to long term memory
spatial orientation compromised

46

DIAGRAM THE COMPONENTS AND CONNECTIONS OF THE LIMBIC SYSTEM

See notes

47

What is the difference between the source of input for fibres of the subiculum vs hippocampus?

subiculum - hypothalamus, septal nucleus, ATN
hippocampus - septal nucleus

48

Input from other cortical regions project to what layer of the neocortex

outer granular layer

49

input from thalamic relay nuclei project to what layer of the neocortex

inner granular layer

50

output from outer pyramidal layer of neocortex go to

other cortical regions

51

output from inner pyramidal layer of neocortex go to

brain & SC

52

What is the WADA test?

medical test to test for speech dominance

53

What are aphasias?

disruptions in speech

54

What are Betz cells?

large cells found ONLY in the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus of frontal lobe)

55

Where do some fibres cross between one hippocampal region and another

crus of fornix