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1

Generally describe the limbic system:

The limbic system is a term used for a number of interconnected cortical regions and subcortical structures that function to serve a number of survival mechanisms.

2

List 5 cortical structures that are included in the Limbic lobe:

1. septal area
2. cingulate area
3. parahippocampal gyrus
4. hippocampus
5. other related cortical areas (orbitofrontal cortex and prefrontal cortex)

3

Describe the septal area:

area surrounding end of rostrum of corpus callosum

4

What are the associated subcortical nuclei of the limbic system?

1. amygdala
2. hypothalamus
3. septal nuclei
4. anterior thalamic group

5

where is the amygdala located?

located deep to the uncus

6

Where is the septal nuclei located?

deep to septal cortical region; near the fornix and anterior commisure

7

List the 4 nerve fiber pathways of the limbic system:

1. mamilothalamic tract
2. fornix
3. stria terminalis
4. medial forebrain bundle

8

The limbic lobe connections are organized as a complex loop. The mamillary bodies connect to the ______________________ via the mamillothalamic tract.

anterior thalamic group

9

The anterior thalamic group connects to the __________________.

cingulate gyrus

10

the cingulate gyrus connects to the __________________________.

parahippocampal gyrus

11

the parahippocampal gyrus connects to the ________________________.

hippocamus

12

the hippocamus connects to the _______________________ and _______________________ via the ____________.

mamillary bodies
and septal region
via the fornix

13

Describe the route of the limbic lobe:

mamillary bodies --> anterior thalamic group (via mamilothalamic tract) --> cingulate gyrus --> cingulate gyrus --> parahippocampal gyrus --> hippocampus --> mamillary bodies AND sepatal region (via fornix)

14

How is the amygdala connected to the limbic circuit?

by way of the connections to the septal region and the hypothalamus via stria terminalis

15

What are the two afferents of the limbic system?

1. cortex
2. reticular formation

16

In the limbic system, the afferent cortex projects:

to all parts of limbic lobe, amygdala and hypothalamus

17

In the limbic system, the afferent reticular formation projects:

to all parts of limbic lobe, amygdala and hypothalamus

18

In the limbic system list two of the efferent locations:

1. limbic lobe
2. amygdala

19

In the limbic system the limbic lobe is efferent and projects to:

all parts of the cortex by way of thalamic gating

and to the hypothalamus and reticular formation

20

In the limbic system the amygdala is efferent and projects to:

dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, which in turn projects to prefrontal cortex (medial forebrain bundle)

21

in the limbic system the amygdala is efferent and projects to the brainstem reticular formation nuclei both directly and indirectly via the:

hypothalamus (medial forebrain bundle)

22

The limbic system generates behaviors necessary for:

preservation of the individual and the species (e.g., motivation, emotion, learning and memory).

23

In the limbic system, the relationship of anatomy to function is only partially known, but suffice it to say that the influence this system has on the hypothalamus and the autonomic nervous system is very powerful. Lesions of the hippocampus and amygdala must be ____________ to result in major deficits of normal behavior.

bilateral

24

In the limbic system, unilateral stimulation, however, may result in ____________ behavior.

abnormal

25

The limbic system has been labeled the 3-F, 1-R system:

(fighting, fleeing, feeding and sexual behavior).

or 4 F's

26

(Hippocampus) Attention: What does unilateral or bilateral stimulation produce?

alertness and searching behavior.

27

What my the proposed circuitry be?

(Hippocampus_Attention: unilateral or bilateral stimulation produces alertness and searching behavior)

???

(remember that alertness and awareness are cycled through the reticular formation as the reticular activating system)

28

(Hippocampus) Memory: loss of recent memory and the inability to form new memories is the result of a ___________ lesion.

bilateral

29

What type of memories is the hippocampus responsible for, declarative or procedural?

declarative (explicit, facts)

NOT procedural (implicit, motor memory)

30

The process of consolidation is the transfer of short-term memories into:

long lasting memories