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Flashcards in Limitations Deck (79):
1

FLIGHT MANEUVERING LOAD ACCELERATION LIMITS

Clean configuration
-1.0g to +2.5g

“Dirty”
0.0g to +2.0g

2

Approach Categories

Cat C . . . A319/A320
Cat D . . . A321

3

RUNWAY LIMITS

Runway Slope

+/- 2 %

4

RUNWAY LIMITS

Max runway altitude

9,200 feet

5

RUNWAY LIMITS

Min runway width

100 feet / 30 meters

6

MAXIMUM WIND LIMITATIONS FOR TAKEOFF AND LANDING

Crosswind (all aircraft):
Takeoff: 35 kts
Landing: 38 kts

Tailwind (A319/A320):
Takeoff: 15 kts
Landing: 10 kts

Tailwind (A321):
Takeoff: 10 kts
Landing: 10 kts

7

CONTAMINATED RUNWAY CROSSWIND LIMITATIONS

5 / Good = 35 (TO) 38 (LND)
4 / Good to Medium = 29 (TO) 29 (LND)
3 / Medium = 25 (TO) 25 (LND)
2 / Medium to Poor = 20 (TO) 20 (LND)
1 / Poor = 15 (TO) 15 (LND)
0 / NIL = PROHIBITED

8

RUNWAY WIDTH LIMITATIONS

Normal runway

150 ft / 45 meters

9

RUNWAY WIDTH LIMITATIONS

Narrow runway

Anything less than 150 feet / 45 meters wide

10

RUNWAY WIDTH LIMITATIONS

Min runway width

100 feet / 30 meters

11

NARROW RUNWAY OPERATIONS

• Autoland is not authorized
• Diversion to normal width runway is recommended in case of:
– Rudder jam
– Rudder pedal jam
– Yaw damper fault
– No nosewheel steering
– Any wheel brake inoperative

12

NARROW RUNWAY CROSSWIND LIMITATIONS

6 / Dry = 35 kts (TO / LND)
5 / Good = 33 kts (TO / LND)
4 / Good to Medium = 10 kts (TO / LND)
3 / Medium = 10 kts (TO / LND)
2 / Medium to Poor = 10 kts (TO / LND)
1 / Poor = 10 kts (TO / LND)
0 / NIL = PROHIBTED

13

PASSENGER and CARGO DOOR LIMITATIONS

Max wind for passenger door operation:
65 kts

Max wind for cargo door operations:
40 kts / 50 kts

If the aircraft nose is oriented into the wind, or if the cargo door is on the leeward side of the aircraft, operation of the cargo door is permitted in winds up to 50 knots. If wind speed begins to exceed these limitations, the cargo door must be closed before the
wind speed exceeds 65 kts.

14

SPEED LIMITATIONS

VMO/MMO

350KIAS/.82 Mach

15

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Severe Turbulent Air Penetration Speed

FL200 and below = 250kts
Above FL200 to FL310 = 275kts
Above FL310 = 0.76 Mach

16

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Landing Gear Operation Speeds

Retraction (VLO) = 220kts
Extension (VLO) = 250kts
Extended (VLE) = 280kts/0.67 Mach

17

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Max Tire Speed

195 kts groundspeed

18

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Max airspeed for operating windshield wipers

230 KIAS

19

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Max airspeed for opening cockpit window

200 KIAS

20

SPEED LIMITATIONS

Max taxi speed in a turn

For A320s and A321s, when weight is above 167,550 lbs, speed limit is 20 kts in a turn.

21

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

PRESSURIZATION AND VENTILATION LIMITATIONS

Cabin Differential Pressure Limitations

Negative = -1.0 psi
Positive = 9.0 psi
Safety Relief Valve = 8.6 psi

22

ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS

Max Landing Gear Extension Altitude

25,000 feet

23

ALTITUDE LIMITATIONS

Max altitude for slat / flap extension

20,000 feet

24

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

PRESSURIZATION AND VENTILATION LIMITATIONS

Ram Air Inlet

Will open only if differential pressure is lower that 1 PSI.

NOTE: If differential pressure is greater than 1 psi, the check valve located downstream will not open even if the ram air door has been selected open.

25

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Air conditioning system parameters

With LP ground unit

Do not use conditioned air simultaneously from packs and LP ground unit (to avoid chattering of the non return valves).

26

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Air conditioning system parameters

With HP ground unit

An external HP source may be used for air conditioning, provided the air supply is confirmed to be free from oil contamination.

Do not use HP ground unit when APU supplies bleed air to avoid bleed system damage.

27

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Air conditioning system parameters

Avionics ventilation

The aircraft electrical system should not be powered for more than 2 hours without a cooling system when the outside air temperature is above 49°C.

28

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Airframe vibration — reporting sheet

Airframe vibrations shall be recorded in the aircraft logbook and on an accompanying Airframe Vibration Reporting Sheet (Form 31048), which contains detailed information used by maintenance to isolate and resolve airframe vibration issues. Whenever possible this form should be filled out in flight and as soon as practical after experiencing airframe vibration. Completed forms shall be left in the aircraft logbook.

29

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

LOW OIL LEVEL ECAM advisory

The APU may be started and operated even if the LOW OIL LEVEL ECAM advisory is displayed. Maintenance action is required within the next 10 hours of APU operation.

NOTE: A logbook entry is not required after receiving this advisory message. Contact MCC to determine
the status of required maintenance action.

30

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU starter duty cycle

Required cooling time
between each start attempt = 1 min
After three consecutive start attempts = 60 min

31

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

EGT limitations

Maximum EGT: 675°C

Maximum EGT for Inflight Start:
At or above 35,000 feet = 1120°C
Below 35, 000 feet = 1090°C

32

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

Max rotor speed

107%

33

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU altitudes — maximum

For APU start using battery power only

25,000 feet MSL

34

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU altitudes — maximum

For APU start using normal electric

39,000 feet MSL

35

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU altitudes — maximum

One Pack Operation w/Electrical

22,500 feet MSL

36

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU altitudes — maximum

For Engine Start

20,000 feet MSL

37

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU altitudes — maximum

Two Pack Operation w/Electrical

15,000 feet MSL

38

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

APU parameters and limitations

APU bleed air for wing anti-ice?

Not permitted

39

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

After takeoff:

100 feet (if SRS is indicated)

40

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

Enroute:

900 feet AGL

41

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

RNAV visual approach:

500 AGL

42

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

Non-Precision Approaches:

DDA/DA

43

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

Non-Autoland ILS with CAT 1 FMA:

160 AGL

44

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

Non-Autoland ILS with CAT 2/3 FMA:

80 AGL

45

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

GO-Around:

100 AGL (If SRS is indicated)

46

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

Autopilot minimum engagement height

Autoland Approach:

ROLLOUT/Taxi Speed

47

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

When must we fly the approach with the autopilot engaged?

When the visibility is less than 4000 RVR or 3/4 SM (if operable).

48

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Auto flight limitations

What is the limitation on the use of OPEN DES or DES mode during an approach?

The use of AP or FD in OPEN DES or DES mode is not permitted inside the FAF or below 1000 ft AGL on a visual approach.

49

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Who must be pilot flying for autolands?

The Captain is the PF for all autolands.

50

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Min runway width for autolands?

150 feet

51

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Approved flap settings

CONFIG 3 and CONFIG FULL are both permitted.

CONFIG FULL is recommended because of improved forward slant range visibility.

52

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Braking action limitations

Autolands are prohibited if braking action is reported less than medium.

53

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

What conditions must be met in order to conduct an autoland?

CAT II/III runway, CAT II/III aircraft, crews CAT II/III trained, appropriate ground facilities are operational, wind within limits, braking action
medium or better.

Automatic landing is not allowed below -1000 ft pressure altitude.

54

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

When is an autoland REQUIRED?

Autoland is required below CAT I minimums.

To minimize the chances of a go-around, if the weather is reported to be below 1/2 mile or 2400 RVR AND all of the requirements for an autoland
can be met, it is Frontier‘s policy to brief it and fly it as a Cat II / Cat III autoland.

55

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

What if the weather requires a Cat II / Cat III autoland, but not all of the requirements can be met?

If one of the autoland requirements cannot be met, e.g. strong crosswind, a non-autoland CAT I approach may be conducted down to our lowest authorized CAT I minimums, i.e., 1800 RVR or as published.

56

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Autoland autobrakes requirements

Runway less than 8,000 feet = MEDIUM
Runway 8,000 feet or longer = LOW or MEDIUM

57

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Autoland wind limitations — A320 / A320 NEO / A321

Headwind = 30 kts
Crosswind = 15 kts
Tailwind = 10 kts
Wind Correction: Vls + wind correction = 5-15 kts

58

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Autoland wind limitations — A319

Headwind = 20 kts
Crosswind = 15 kts
Tailwind = 5 kts
Wind Correction: Vls + wind correction = 5-15 kts

59

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Autoland parameters

Engine out

The Airbus A320 series aircraft are approved by the AFM to perform single engine autoland approaches.

Although Frontier Airlines’ limitations prohibit the initiation of single engine autoland approaches, the flight crew may use emergency authority if it is determined to be the safest course of action.

NOTE: On A320 aircraft with an engine inoperative, single engine autoland approaches are only
approved by the AFM in CONFIG FULL.

60

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Electrical limitations

Continuous load per generator

100% (90 kVA)

61

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Electrical limitations

Continuous load per TR

200 amps

62

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine EGT and thrust — Max (A320 NEO)

Takeoff + go-around (time / EGT limit):
All engines = 5 min / 1060° C
One engine inop = 10 min / 1060° C

Max continuous thrust = unlimited time / 1025° C

Starting:
On ground = 750° C
In flight = 875° C

63

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine EGT and thrust — Max (A319 / A320 / A321)

Takeoff + go-around (time / EGT limit)
All engines = 5 min / 950° C
One engine inop = 10 min / 950° C

Max continuous thrust = unlimited time / 915° C

Starting:
On ground = 725° C
In flight = 725° C

64

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil pressure — min

17.4 psi

65

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil quantity — min

11 qts + 0.5 qts for every hour of estimated flight time.

66

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil temperature limitations — max continuous

140° C

67

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil temperature limitations — max transient (time and temp)

15 minutes / 155° C

68

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil temperature limitations — min starting temp (NEO and CEOs)

NEO = -29° C
CEO = -40° C

69

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine oil temperature limitations — min temp for takeoff

19° C

70

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine RPM — max
N1 and N2 (NEO)

N1 = 101%
N2 = 116.50%

71

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Engine RPM — max
N1 and N2 (CEO)

N1 = 104%
N2 = 105%

72

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

engine starter duty cycle limitations (NEO)

After starter cycle:
1 = 60 seconds off
2 = 60 seconds off
3 = 60 seconds off

After 3 consecutive cycles, 15 minutes off. A standard automatic start that includes up to three start attempts is considered one cycle.

73

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

engine starter duty cycle limitations (CEO)

After starter cycle:
1 = 20 seconds off
2 = 20 seconds off
3 = 20 seconds off

After 3 consecutive cycles, 15 minutes off. A standard automatic start that includes up to three start attempts is considered one cycle.

74

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Reverse thrust limitations

• Selecting reverse thrust in flight is prohibited.
• Backing the aircraft with reverse thrust is not permitted.
• Maximum reverse will not be used below 70 knots (Idle reverse is allowed down to aircraft stop).
• Except in an emergency, reverse thrust is not authorized to reduce taxi speed.

75

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Engine limitations

Reduced thrust takeoff

• Takeoff at reduced thrust is permissible, only if the airplane meets all applicable performance requirements at the planned takeoff weight, with the operating engines at the thrust available for the
assumed temperature.
• Thrust reduction must not exceed 25% of the full rated takeoff thrust. To meet this requirement, the flexible temperature (T MAX FLEX) must not be higher than ISA + 60° C for A319, ISA + 53° C for A320,
ISA + 55 C for A320 NEO and ISA + 43° C for A321.
• The assumed temperature must not be lower than the actual OAT.
• Takeoff at reduced thrust is allowed with any inoperative item affecting the performance, only if the associated performance shortfall has been applied to meet all performance requirements at the takeoff weight, with the operating engines at the thrust available for the flex temperature.

Takeoff at reduced thrust is prohibited:
• on slippery or contaminated runways;
• when suspected, reported or known wind shear is present (e.g., predictive wind shear alerts, or ATC-issued wind shear alerts for the departure runway or departure path);
• when a Special Departure Procedure specifies full thrust for takeoff.

“MELs COWS perform at 25%”

Flex takeoff permitted unless:

• Prohibited by MEL
• Contaminated runway
• OAT greater than assumed temp
• Windshear
• Special departure procedure which prohibits
• Performance
• 25% reduction of thrust compared to full thrust setting

76

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Fuel limitations

Min fuel for takeoff

3,300 lbs
And WING TK LO LVL warning must not be displayed on ECAM.

77

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Fuel limitations

Takeoff with center tank fuel

Takeoff with center tank fuel supplying the engines is PROHIBITED

78

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Hydraulics limitations

Max operating pressure

3,200 psi

79

AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS LIMITATIONS

Landing gear parameters

Brake temperature — max for takeoff

300° C