Lipid Mediators of Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Week 9 > Lipid Mediators of Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipid Mediators of Inflammation Deck (26):
1

Eicosanoids are powerful inflammatory mediators- they can be slit into:

- Cyclooxygenases
- lipoxygenases

2

Cycloxygenases are:

Prostaglandins
& Thromboxanes
(prostanoids)

3

Lipoxygenases are:

Leukotrienes
& Lipoxins

4

4 drugs that are used against Eicosanoids are:

NSAIDS
Glucocorticoids
Lipoxygenase inhibitors
Leukotriene antagonists

5

AAs are produced from _________via 1-step/2-step pathways
These steps are triggered by many agents, e.g. thrombin on ______ and antigen-antibody reactions on _______

phospholipids
platelets
mast cells

6

The 1 step pathway enzymes is.....

Phospholipase A2

7

__________and ________ are known initiators of the cascade and can initiate phospholipase action at the cell membrane.

Bradykinin
Adrenaline

8

Conversion of AA to prostanoids requires the enzyme _________
Two main isoforms _____ and ______
COXs are fatty acids, attached to _________________

cyclooxygenase (COX)
COX1
COX2
endoplasmic membrane

9

COX 3 is for......

pain perception

10

COX-1
Is constitutively ________
responsible for ‘physiological’ roles of PGs/TXs such as regulation of peripheral vascular resistance, renal blood flow, _____, gastric cytoprotection


COX-2
Needs to be stimulated (e.g. by inflammatory cytokines- ______, _____)
Responsible for role of PGs/TXs in________ responses (pain and fever)

active
platelet aggregation


IL-1
TNFa

11

In the COX pathway all things come from ___________ which leads to all the other prostnoids
PGI2 leads to............
TX2 leads to..........
PGE2.......
PGF2a............


PGH2

Vasodilation
Platelet aggregation
allergy responses and mast cell release
Myometrium contraction

12

In the lipoxygenase pathway more ___________ are added to leukotriene A4 to make........

amino acids

LTC4, LTD4, LTE4

13

There is a switch for PG synthesis from____________ , __________ at onset of inflammation to anti-inflammatory ________ during resolution

pro inflammatory
PGs and LTs
lipoxins and cyPG

14

Lipoxins recruit _______to clear inflamed site of necrotic apoptotic _______
Regulate activation levels of ______ and dampen their damaging effects (↑phagocytosis of neutrophils)

macrophages
neutrophils
neutrophils

15

CypG – inhibits ________ activation→ ↓ uncontrolled tissue damage; ↓_____ activation (helps to ↓ activation of inflammatory genes)

macrophage
NF-B

16

Cells specialise in making particular eicosanoids:

mast cells make..........
platelets make ..........
endothelial cells.........

PGD2
TXA2
PGI2 and PGE2

17

LTC4, LTD4 & LTE4 work at receptors and they cause effects in the lungs which are:

Cys-LT
bronchoconstriction
↑ vascular permeability
oedema
↑secretion of thick, viscous mucus)

18

Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the _____ for LTC4, LTD4, LTE4.

cys-LT receptor

19

Receptor blockade is useful in (3)

- Prevention of mild to moderate asthma
- Early to late bronchoconstrictor effects of allergens
- Exercise-induced asthma and asthma provoked by NSAIDs

Aspirin blocks COX pathway so the lipoxigenase pathway is still active, still generating leuks (other branch isnt blocked)

20

Give side effects of leukotriene antagonists.

GI upset
Irritability
Dry mouth, thirst
Rashes, oedema

21

____ is the most potent leukotriene mediator of inflammation.

LTD4

22

What is more potent leukotrienes or histamine?

leukotrienes

23

_____ acts on TP receptors to increased___ and cause _______.

TXA2
Ca
vasocontraction

24

____ acts on IP receptors to cause increased _______ and _______.
Eicosanoids have ______ actions.

PGI2
CAMP
vasodialation
diverse

25

Derivatives of ____ and___ (resolvins and neuroprotectins, respectively) have _____________ actions.

EPA
DHA
anti-inflammatory

26

If you take a lot of fish oils you reduce your____ levels which is natural _____ substrate but you replace them with _____ and ____- their levels go up.
These don’t cause the same kind of effects- their effects are more______ than _______.
Levels of _________________________ go up.


AA
COX
EPA and DHA
resolving
damaging

lipoxins
cyPG
resolving
neuroprotectins