Flashcards in Lipid Mediators of Inflammation Deck (26):
Eicosanoids are powerful inflammatory mediators- they can be slit into:
4 drugs that are used against Eicosanoids are:
AAs are produced from _________via 1-step/2-step pathways
These steps are triggered by many agents, e.g. thrombin on ______ and antigen-antibody reactions on _______
The 1 step pathway enzymes is.....
__________and ________ are known initiators of the cascade and can initiate phospholipase action at the cell membrane.
Conversion of AA to prostanoids requires the enzyme _________
Two main isoforms _____ and ______
COXs are fatty acids, attached to _________________
COX 3 is for......
Is constitutively ________
responsible for ‘physiological’ roles of PGs/TXs such as regulation of peripheral vascular resistance, renal blood flow, _____, gastric cytoprotection
Needs to be stimulated (e.g. by inflammatory cytokines- ______, _____)
Responsible for role of PGs/TXs in________ responses (pain and fever)
In the COX pathway all things come from ___________ which leads to all the other prostnoids
PGI2 leads to............
TX2 leads to..........
allergy responses and mast cell release
In the lipoxygenase pathway more ___________ are added to leukotriene A4 to make........
LTC4, LTD4, LTE4
There is a switch for PG synthesis from____________ , __________ at onset of inflammation to anti-inflammatory ________ during resolution
PGs and LTs
lipoxins and cyPG
Lipoxins recruit _______to clear inflamed site of necrotic apoptotic _______
Regulate activation levels of ______ and dampen their damaging effects (↑phagocytosis of neutrophils)
CypG – inhibits ________ activation→ ↓ uncontrolled tissue damage; ↓_____ activation (helps to ↓ activation of inflammatory genes)
Cells specialise in making particular eicosanoids:
mast cells make..........
platelets make ..........
PGI2 and PGE2
LTC4, LTD4 & LTE4 work at receptors and they cause effects in the lungs which are:
↑ vascular permeability
↑secretion of thick, viscous mucus)
Leukotriene receptor antagonists block the _____ for LTC4, LTD4, LTE4.
Receptor blockade is useful in (3)
- Prevention of mild to moderate asthma
- Early to late bronchoconstrictor effects of allergens
- Exercise-induced asthma and asthma provoked by NSAIDs
Aspirin blocks COX pathway so the lipoxigenase pathway is still active, still generating leuks (other branch isnt blocked)
Give side effects of leukotriene antagonists.
Dry mouth, thirst
____ is the most potent leukotriene mediator of inflammation.
What is more potent leukotrienes or histamine?
_____ acts on TP receptors to increased___ and cause _______.
____ acts on IP receptors to cause increased _______ and _______.
Eicosanoids have ______ actions.
Derivatives of ____ and___ (resolvins and neuroprotectins, respectively) have _____________ actions.