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fundamentals of nutrition > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (63):
1

What is the storage form of fat?

Triglycerides

2

What is structure of triglycerides?

Composed of 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule

3

What happens to glycerol when triglycerides are metabolized

Can be converted to glucose

4

What is glycerol?

Short chain carbohydrate molecule that is soluble in water

5

What is structure of phospholipids?

Contain glycerol backbone with 3 molecules attached
2 fatty acids and a phosphorus containing molecule

6

What are most common phosphorus containing molecules on a phospholipid?

Still need answer

7

What is best studied type of phospholipid ?

Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)

8

Lipids in food and our body are comprised of how much triglycerides?

95%

9

what are 3 types of Fatty acids

saturated- lard, butter, coconut oil, animal fats
unsaturated- veggie oils, olive oil, avocado
polyunsaturated fats

10

what are the 2 types of unsaturated fats?

monounsaturated
polyunsaturated (includes omega 3 and omega 6)

11

most popular omega 6

linoleic acid
gama-linolenic acid
arachidonic acid

12

what prostaglandin series does omega 6 fatty acids produce?

series 1 and 2

13

most popular omega 3

alpha-linolenic acid
EPA
DHA

14

what prostaglandin series does omega 3 fatty acids produce?

series 3

15

what is regulatory molecule for inflammation called?

eicosanoids

16

how many carbon atoms do eicosanoids contain?

20 carbon atoms

17

what are eicosanoids made from?

made directly from omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids

18

what are 4 most common types of eicosanoids?

prostaglandins
prostacyclins
leukotrienes
thromboxanes

19

what do series 1 and 3 do to immunity?

enhance immunity

20

what does series 2 do to immunity?

surpresses immunity

21

prostaglandins series 1

anti inflammatory
relaxes blood vessels and prevents blood platelets from clumping together

22

prostaglandis series 2

promotes inflammation
constricts blood vessels
increases blood pressure, making blood platelets clump
lowers immune function
made from omega 6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid

23

prostglandins series 3

block detrimental effects of series 2

24

classification of fats

triglycerides
phospholipid
sterols (includes cholesterol, phytosterols, and steroid hormones)

25

what is main place of digestion for fats

small intestine

26

what is main enzyme that splits the triglycerides into diglycerides and monoglycerides?

pancreatic lipase

27

what are diglycerides and monoglycerides hydrolyzed into?

fatty acids and glycerol

28

where does digestion of fats start?

chewing process to help separate the fats

29

what helps break down fats in the stomach?

enzymes and hydrochloric acid (gastric lipase has little effect in beginning the breakdown of fats)

30

Tissue lipids make up ______% of an average adults weight?

10-15%

31

What does total body fat consist of?

All tissue lipids (subcutaneous fat) plus the stored fat (brown fat)

32

What are 3 primary functions that fat serves in body?

1) ready energy source
2) acts as protective blanket, shielding organs from trauma and cold
3) integral part of cell membranes

33

What are some short chain fatty acids?

Acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid

34

What are some medium chain fatty acids?

Caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid an lauric acid

35

What are some long chain fatty acids?

Myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid

36

What size of amino acid can be absorbed directly from digestive tract and doesn't have to take pathway involving lymphatic system and liver?

Medium chained fatty acids

37

Which type of fatty acid provides most stable structure?

Saturated ones (interact least with other molecules)

38

What can fatty acids be saturated with?

Hydrogen?

39

Which type of fatty acid provides flexibility to cell membranes?

Unsaturated

40

How can we prevent oxidization of unsaturated fatty acids?

Refrigerate, air tight containers, minimal opening and addition of antioxidants (like vitamin E)

41

What are monounsaturated fatty acid?

Only one spot in FA where hydrogen has been removed

42

What happens to the FA when more hydrogen atoms have been removed?

More flexibility and more susceptible to damage

43

What are double bonded spots where hydrogen has been removed called?

Hotspots

44

What do the double bonded spots on a FA do?

Contain twice as much energy and are quick to interact with other molecules (radicals)

45

What is process of PUFAs being damaged by light, heat, oxygen or radicals called ?

Lipid peroxidation

46

What is added to PUFAs to prevent lipid peroxidation?

Antioxidants

47

What is process called that helps extend shelf life of PUFAs

Hydrogenation (produces semi solid fat) -removes unsaturated fatty acid and replaced with trans fat

48

What risks occurs to humans due to hydrogenation process?

Increases blood cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, increased risk of atherosclerosis

49

What are fatty acids sometimes referred to as?

Vitamin F

50

What type of fat is a high energy food source?

Dietary fat

51

What is fat primarily found in?

Meats, dairy foods, nuts and seeds

52

Fats pack _____ the amounts of calories than proteins and carbs

Twice

53

Are fats part of every cell membrane and every organ and tissue ?

Yes

54

What are sphingolipids ?

Closely related to phospholipids
Are important in helping to form nerve cells

55

What is cholesterol a precursor to?

Bile acids and sex hormones

56

Where is cholesterol manufactured in body?

Primarily in liver but all tissues of body except the brain can make it

57

What types of food is cholesterol in?

Egg yolk, meat, animal fats, milk products

58

Cholesterol is basis for formation of what in the body?

Hormones and vitamins

59

What does LDL (low density lipoproteins) do?

Carry cholesterol from liver to rest of body

60

What does HDL do?

Carry cholesterol back to liver

61

Does HDL or LDL calm immune system and reduce inflammation ?

HDL

62

What emulsifies fats to break them down into smaller molecules ?

Bile

63

What does hydrophilic mean?

Attracted to water