Flashcards in Lipids Deck (63):
What is the storage form of fat?
What is structure of triglycerides?
Composed of 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol molecule
What happens to glycerol when triglycerides are metabolized
Can be converted to glucose
What is glycerol?
Short chain carbohydrate molecule that is soluble in water
What is structure of phospholipids?
Contain glycerol backbone with 3 molecules attached
2 fatty acids and a phosphorus containing molecule
What are most common phosphorus containing molecules on a phospholipid?
Still need answer
What is best studied type of phospholipid ?
Lipids in food and our body are comprised of how much triglycerides?
what are 3 types of Fatty acids
saturated- lard, butter, coconut oil, animal fats
unsaturated- veggie oils, olive oil, avocado
what are the 2 types of unsaturated fats?
polyunsaturated (includes omega 3 and omega 6)
most popular omega 6
what prostaglandin series does omega 6 fatty acids produce?
series 1 and 2
most popular omega 3
what prostaglandin series does omega 3 fatty acids produce?
what is regulatory molecule for inflammation called?
how many carbon atoms do eicosanoids contain?
20 carbon atoms
what are eicosanoids made from?
made directly from omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids
what are 4 most common types of eicosanoids?
what do series 1 and 3 do to immunity?
what does series 2 do to immunity?
prostaglandins series 1
relaxes blood vessels and prevents blood platelets from clumping together
prostaglandis series 2
constricts blood vessels
increases blood pressure, making blood platelets clump
lowers immune function
made from omega 6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid
prostglandins series 3
block detrimental effects of series 2
classification of fats
sterols (includes cholesterol, phytosterols, and steroid hormones)
what is main place of digestion for fats
what is main enzyme that splits the triglycerides into diglycerides and monoglycerides?
what are diglycerides and monoglycerides hydrolyzed into?
fatty acids and glycerol
where does digestion of fats start?
chewing process to help separate the fats
what helps break down fats in the stomach?
enzymes and hydrochloric acid (gastric lipase has little effect in beginning the breakdown of fats)
Tissue lipids make up ______% of an average adults weight?
What does total body fat consist of?
All tissue lipids (subcutaneous fat) plus the stored fat (brown fat)
What are 3 primary functions that fat serves in body?
1) ready energy source
2) acts as protective blanket, shielding organs from trauma and cold
3) integral part of cell membranes
What are some short chain fatty acids?
Acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid
What are some medium chain fatty acids?
Caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid an lauric acid
What are some long chain fatty acids?
Myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid
What size of amino acid can be absorbed directly from digestive tract and doesn't have to take pathway involving lymphatic system and liver?
Medium chained fatty acids
Which type of fatty acid provides most stable structure?
Saturated ones (interact least with other molecules)
What can fatty acids be saturated with?
Which type of fatty acid provides flexibility to cell membranes?
How can we prevent oxidization of unsaturated fatty acids?
Refrigerate, air tight containers, minimal opening and addition of antioxidants (like vitamin E)
What are monounsaturated fatty acid?
Only one spot in FA where hydrogen has been removed
What happens to the FA when more hydrogen atoms have been removed?
More flexibility and more susceptible to damage
What are double bonded spots where hydrogen has been removed called?
What do the double bonded spots on a FA do?
Contain twice as much energy and are quick to interact with other molecules (radicals)
What is process of PUFAs being damaged by light, heat, oxygen or radicals called ?
What is added to PUFAs to prevent lipid peroxidation?
What is process called that helps extend shelf life of PUFAs
Hydrogenation (produces semi solid fat) -removes unsaturated fatty acid and replaced with trans fat
What risks occurs to humans due to hydrogenation process?
Increases blood cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, increased risk of atherosclerosis
What are fatty acids sometimes referred to as?
What type of fat is a high energy food source?
What is fat primarily found in?
Meats, dairy foods, nuts and seeds
Fats pack _____ the amounts of calories than proteins and carbs
Are fats part of every cell membrane and every organ and tissue ?
What are sphingolipids ?
Closely related to phospholipids
Are important in helping to form nerve cells
What is cholesterol a precursor to?
Bile acids and sex hormones
Where is cholesterol manufactured in body?
Primarily in liver but all tissues of body except the brain can make it
What types of food is cholesterol in?
Egg yolk, meat, animal fats, milk products
Cholesterol is basis for formation of what in the body?
Hormones and vitamins
What does LDL (low density lipoproteins) do?
Carry cholesterol from liver to rest of body
What does HDL do?
Carry cholesterol back to liver
Does HDL or LDL calm immune system and reduce inflammation ?
What emulsifies fats to break them down into smaller molecules ?