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Flashcards in Lipids Deck (105):
1

Predominant fatty acid in coconut oil

Lauric acid

2

End product of mammalian fatty acid is called

Palmitic acid

3

Predominant fatty acid in olive oil

Oleic acid

4

What are the 2 essential fatty acids

Linoleic
Linolenic

5

Fatty acid that is a precursor of prostaglandins

Arachidonic acid

6

Arachidonic acid is derived from which fatty acid?

Linoleic acid

7

Shortest fatty acid

Acetyl CoA- 2 carbons

8

How many carbons does palmitic acid have?

16

9

Which fatty acid is also called omega 3?

Linolenic acid

10

Which fatty acid is also called omega 6?

Linoleic

11

How many carbons does oleic, linolenic and linoleic have?

18

12

At what carbons does the double bond of linolenic acid happen?

9,12,15

13

At what carbons does the double bond of linoleic acid happen?

9 and 12

14

Oleic acid has a double bond at what carbon?

9

15

Activation of fatty acids occur through which enzyme?

Fatty Acyl CoA synthetase

16

Cofactor of fatty acyl CoA synthetase

Coenzyme A

17

At which organ does lipogenesis occur

Liver
Kidney, brain, lung, mammary gland and adipose tissue

18

What is the product of Lipogenesis

Palmitoyl CoA

19

What is the substrate in lipogenesis

Acetyl CoA

20

Rate limiting step of lipogenesis

Acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA through acetyl CoA carboxylase

Adik sa Chicharon Chubby

21

Mitochondrial acetyl CoA is transported to the cytosol through what shuttle

Citrate

I ATE- citrate

22

Lipogenesis occurs in what part of the cell?

Cytosol

23

Acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA step is activated by the presence of

Citrate and insulin

24

Elongation of fatty acids to Palmitoyl CoA us through what enzyme

Fatty acid synthase enzyme complex

25

Coenzyme of acetyl CoA carboxylase

Biotin

26

What is the primer used in fatty acid elongation

Acetyl CoA

27

Required as a donor of reducing equivalents in the reduction reactions during Lipogenesis

NADPH

28

What are the steps of Lipogenesis?

Code Red Red

Condensation
Reduction
Dehydration
Reduction

29

Sources of NADPH used in Lipogenesis

Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Minor sources:
Malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase

30

Humans can only do double bonds up to which carbon?

Carbon 9

31

Further elongation of fatty acids occur in the

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

32

Steps in lipogenesis is repeated how many times?

7

33

Fatty acids storage form is called

Triacylglycerol

34

Where are triacylglycerols stored?

Liver and adipose

35

Sources of Glycerol 3 phosphate

DHAP from glycolysis
Phosphorylation of free glycerol

36

Glycerol 3 phosphate from glycolysis can be found in which organ

Liver and muscle

37

Free glycerol can be found in what organ

Liver only

38

Mobilization of stored fats to release fatty acids is through what enzyme

Hormone sensitive lipase

39

Where does beta oxidation occur in the cell

Mitochondria

40

Fatty acid activation occurs in what part of the cell

Cytosol

41

What is the substrate for beta oxidation

Palmitate

42

What are the products of beta oxidation

8 acetyl CoA
7 NADH
7 FADH

43

What is the rate limiting step of beta oxidation

Translocation of fatty acyl CoA from cytosol to mitochondria through Carnitine-palmitoyl transferase

Carni-THIN

44

What enzyme attaches fatty acyl to carnitine in the outer mitochondrial membrane?

Carnitine acyltransferase 1

45

Degradation of fatty acids in beta oxidation steps

OHOT
Oxidation
Hydration
Oxidation
Thiolysis

46

Enzyme in fatty acyl CoA degradation is collectively called

Fatty acid oxidase

47

Which enzyme in fatty acid oxidase enzyme complex is chain length specific?

Fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase

48

ATP yiled of palmitate in beta oxidation

106 ATPs

8 acetyl CoA- 80
7 FADH (x1.5)- 10.5
7 NADH (x2.5)- 17.5
-2 ATPs from activation

49

Oxidation of fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms will yield acetyl CoA and a molecule of ____

Propionyl CoA

50

Propionyl CoA is then converted to this substrate which can be used in Krebs

Succinyl CoA

51

Propionyl CoA carboxylase which is used to convert propionyl to methylmalonyl CoA uses which coenzyme?

Biotin

52

Methylmalonyl mutase requires what coenzyme to convert methylmalonyl to succinyl CoA?

Vitamin B12

53

Very long chain fatty acids are oxidized by?

Peroxisomes

54

Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids require what enzyme

3,2 enoyl-CoA isomerase

55

Malonyl CoA inhibits what pathway

Beta oxidation

56

Deficiency of this substance can be due to inadequate synthesis or renal loss and can lead to hypoglycemia and lipid accumulation with muscular weakness

Carnitine

57

This deficiency leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation that leads to severe hypoglycemia and coma

Affects the liver

Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 1

58

Affects the liver and muscle, this deficiency can manifest with cardiomyopathy, muscle weakness with myoglobinemia after prolonged exercise

Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 2

59

This enzyme deficiency leads to decreased oxidation of fatty acids with 6-10 carbons

Medium chain fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency

60

Most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation

Autsomal recessive

MCAD deficiency

61

This disease is caused by eating the unripe fruit of an Akee tree

Hypoglycin inactivates short and medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase that inhibits beta oxidation

Jamaican Vomiting sickness

62

This disease is from deficient phytanoyl CoA hydroxylase that leads to accumulation of phytanic acid and manifest as peripheral neuropathy and ataxia, retinis pigmentosa

Refsum disease

63

Inherited absence of peroxisomes that leads to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in liver and CNS

Zellweger disease

64

Adrenoleukodystrophy results from inability to transport VLCFA across the peroxisomal membrane and accumulation in which organs

Brain
Adrenals
Testis

65

Where does ketogenesis occur in the cell

Liver mitochondria

66

What is the substrate of ketogenesis

Acetyl CoA

67

What are the products of ketogenesis

Acetoacetate
Beta hydroxybutyrate
Acetone

68

What is the rate limiting step of ketogenesis?

Acetoacetyl CoA + Acetyl CoA to HMG COA through HMG COA synthase

KHetones

69

The liver is not able to use ketone bodies as fuel because it lacks what enzyme

Thiophorase

70

What product of ketogenesis is not detected in the Na nitroprusside reaction test?

B- hydroxybutyrate

71

Cholesterol in diet is stored in what form?

Cholesteryl esters

72

Double bond of cholesterol is found at

Carbon 5 and 6 of the B ring

73

Hydroxyl group of cholesterol is attached to what carbon

Carbon 3 of the A ring

74

How many carbons does cholesterol have?

27

75

Where does the hydrocarbon chain of cholesterol attach?

Carbon 17 of the D ring

76

Cholesterol are turned into bile acids through what enzyme

7a- hydroxylase

77

What are the primary bile acids

Cholic acid
Chenodeoxycholic acid

78

Bile acids are conjugated with what substances to form bile salts?

Taurine
Glyine

79

Cholesterol is turned to adrenal hormones through what enzyme

Desmolase

80

What is the substrate for cholesterol synthesis?

Acetyl CoA

81

Where does cholesterol synthesis occur in the cell

Cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum

82

What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis

HMG COA to Mevalonate through HMG COA reductase that requires 2 NADPH

83

Presence of this factor inhibits cholesterol synthesis

Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor

84

Cholesterol ring cannot be synthesized by humans so it is converted into bile salts which are excreted in feces or into bile where intestinal bacteria can convert it into _____ and _____

Coprostanol
Cholestanol

85

Most common form of Congenital adrenal hyperplasia where glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are deficient

21 a-hydroxylase deficiency

86

CAH enzyme deficiency that results in decrease cortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone

11 b hydroxylase deficiency

87

Spherical macromolecular complexes of lipids and proteins are called

Apoproteins (apolipoproteins)

88

Lipoprotein that has the largest diameter, lowest density and highest TAG content

Chylomicron

89

Lipoprotein that has highest cholesterol content

LDL

90

Lipoprotein that has highest protein content

HDL

91

Apolipoprotein that is found mainly in HDL and is a cofactor of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase

Apo A1

92

Main apolipoprotein and mediates secretion of VLDL

Apo B100

93

Main apolipoprotein and mediates secretion of chylomicrons

Apo B48

94

Apolipoprotein that is a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase

Apo C2

95

Apolipoprotein that mediates uptake of chylomicron remnants and IDLs

Apo E

96

Chronic alcohol consumption leads to fatty liver due to increased NADH that leads to decreased

Beta oxidation

97

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has no increased risk of coronary disease

Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

98

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has abnormal apo E

Hypercholesterolemia
Xanthoma
Atherosclerosis

Familial dysbetalipoprotenemia

99

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has defective LDL receptor

High LDL and cholesterol
Atherosclerosis and coronary disease

Familial hypercholesterolemia

100

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has deficient apo C2 or lipoprotein lipase

Low LDL, HDL

Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

101

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has overproduction of VLDL

High VLDL and cholesterol, subnormal LDL and HDL

Coronary disease, T2DM, obesity, alcoholism

Familial hypertriacylglycerolemia

102

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has atherosclerosis and thrombosis due to inhibition of fibrinolysis

Familial lipoprotein A excess

103

Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has high HDL levels

Familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia

104

Familial hypolipoproteinemia that has a defect in loading of Apo B

Low TAG, accumulation of TAG in liver and intestines

Treatment: high dose water soluble vitamins particularly vitamin E

Familial Abetalipoproteinemia

105

Tangier disease
Fish eye disease
Low or near absence of HDL
High TAG, atherosclerosis in elderly

Familial alpha lipoprotein deficiency