Flashcards in Lipids Deck (105):
Predominant fatty acid in coconut oil
End product of mammalian fatty acid is called
Predominant fatty acid in olive oil
What are the 2 essential fatty acids
Fatty acid that is a precursor of prostaglandins
Arachidonic acid is derived from which fatty acid?
Shortest fatty acid
Acetyl CoA- 2 carbons
How many carbons does palmitic acid have?
Which fatty acid is also called omega 3?
Which fatty acid is also called omega 6?
How many carbons does oleic, linolenic and linoleic have?
At what carbons does the double bond of linolenic acid happen?
At what carbons does the double bond of linoleic acid happen?
9 and 12
Oleic acid has a double bond at what carbon?
Activation of fatty acids occur through which enzyme?
Fatty Acyl CoA synthetase
Cofactor of fatty acyl CoA synthetase
At which organ does lipogenesis occur
Kidney, brain, lung, mammary gland and adipose tissue
What is the product of Lipogenesis
What is the substrate in lipogenesis
Rate limiting step of lipogenesis
Acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA through acetyl CoA carboxylase
Adik sa Chicharon Chubby
Mitochondrial acetyl CoA is transported to the cytosol through what shuttle
I ATE- citrate
Lipogenesis occurs in what part of the cell?
Acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA step is activated by the presence of
Citrate and insulin
Elongation of fatty acids to Palmitoyl CoA us through what enzyme
Fatty acid synthase enzyme complex
Coenzyme of acetyl CoA carboxylase
What is the primer used in fatty acid elongation
Required as a donor of reducing equivalents in the reduction reactions during Lipogenesis
What are the steps of Lipogenesis?
Code Red Red
Sources of NADPH used in Lipogenesis
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Malic enzyme and isocitrate dehydrogenase
Humans can only do double bonds up to which carbon?
Further elongation of fatty acids occur in the
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Steps in lipogenesis is repeated how many times?
Fatty acids storage form is called
Where are triacylglycerols stored?
Liver and adipose
Sources of Glycerol 3 phosphate
DHAP from glycolysis
Phosphorylation of free glycerol
Glycerol 3 phosphate from glycolysis can be found in which organ
Liver and muscle
Free glycerol can be found in what organ
Mobilization of stored fats to release fatty acids is through what enzyme
Hormone sensitive lipase
Where does beta oxidation occur in the cell
Fatty acid activation occurs in what part of the cell
What is the substrate for beta oxidation
What are the products of beta oxidation
8 acetyl CoA
What is the rate limiting step of beta oxidation
Translocation of fatty acyl CoA from cytosol to mitochondria through Carnitine-palmitoyl transferase
What enzyme attaches fatty acyl to carnitine in the outer mitochondrial membrane?
Carnitine acyltransferase 1
Degradation of fatty acids in beta oxidation steps
Enzyme in fatty acyl CoA degradation is collectively called
Fatty acid oxidase
Which enzyme in fatty acid oxidase enzyme complex is chain length specific?
Fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase
ATP yiled of palmitate in beta oxidation
8 acetyl CoA- 80
7 FADH (x1.5)- 10.5
7 NADH (x2.5)- 17.5
-2 ATPs from activation
Oxidation of fatty acids with odd number of carbon atoms will yield acetyl CoA and a molecule of ____
Propionyl CoA is then converted to this substrate which can be used in Krebs
Propionyl CoA carboxylase which is used to convert propionyl to methylmalonyl CoA uses which coenzyme?
Methylmalonyl mutase requires what coenzyme to convert methylmalonyl to succinyl CoA?
Very long chain fatty acids are oxidized by?
Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids require what enzyme
3,2 enoyl-CoA isomerase
Malonyl CoA inhibits what pathway
Deficiency of this substance can be due to inadequate synthesis or renal loss and can lead to hypoglycemia and lipid accumulation with muscular weakness
This deficiency leads to reduced fatty acid oxidation that leads to severe hypoglycemia and coma
Affects the liver
Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 1
Affects the liver and muscle, this deficiency can manifest with cardiomyopathy, muscle weakness with myoglobinemia after prolonged exercise
Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 2
This enzyme deficiency leads to decreased oxidation of fatty acids with 6-10 carbons
Medium chain fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency
Most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation
This disease is caused by eating the unripe fruit of an Akee tree
Hypoglycin inactivates short and medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase that inhibits beta oxidation
Jamaican Vomiting sickness
This disease is from deficient phytanoyl CoA hydroxylase that leads to accumulation of phytanic acid and manifest as peripheral neuropathy and ataxia, retinis pigmentosa
Inherited absence of peroxisomes that leads to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in liver and CNS
Adrenoleukodystrophy results from inability to transport VLCFA across the peroxisomal membrane and accumulation in which organs
Where does ketogenesis occur in the cell
What is the substrate of ketogenesis
What are the products of ketogenesis
What is the rate limiting step of ketogenesis?
Acetoacetyl CoA + Acetyl CoA to HMG COA through HMG COA synthase
The liver is not able to use ketone bodies as fuel because it lacks what enzyme
What product of ketogenesis is not detected in the Na nitroprusside reaction test?
Cholesterol in diet is stored in what form?
Double bond of cholesterol is found at
Carbon 5 and 6 of the B ring
Hydroxyl group of cholesterol is attached to what carbon
Carbon 3 of the A ring
How many carbons does cholesterol have?
Where does the hydrocarbon chain of cholesterol attach?
Carbon 17 of the D ring
Cholesterol are turned into bile acids through what enzyme
What are the primary bile acids
Bile acids are conjugated with what substances to form bile salts?
Cholesterol is turned to adrenal hormones through what enzyme
What is the substrate for cholesterol synthesis?
Where does cholesterol synthesis occur in the cell
Cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum
What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis
HMG COA to Mevalonate through HMG COA reductase that requires 2 NADPH
Presence of this factor inhibits cholesterol synthesis
Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor
Cholesterol ring cannot be synthesized by humans so it is converted into bile salts which are excreted in feces or into bile where intestinal bacteria can convert it into _____ and _____
Most common form of Congenital adrenal hyperplasia where glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are deficient
21 a-hydroxylase deficiency
CAH enzyme deficiency that results in decrease cortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone
11 b hydroxylase deficiency
Spherical macromolecular complexes of lipids and proteins are called
Lipoprotein that has the largest diameter, lowest density and highest TAG content
Lipoprotein that has highest cholesterol content
Lipoprotein that has highest protein content
Apolipoprotein that is found mainly in HDL and is a cofactor of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase
Main apolipoprotein and mediates secretion of VLDL
Main apolipoprotein and mediates secretion of chylomicrons
Apolipoprotein that is a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase
Apolipoprotein that mediates uptake of chylomicron remnants and IDLs
Chronic alcohol consumption leads to fatty liver due to increased NADH that leads to decreased
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has no increased risk of coronary disease
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has abnormal apo E
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has defective LDL receptor
High LDL and cholesterol
Atherosclerosis and coronary disease
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has deficient apo C2 or lipoprotein lipase
Low LDL, HDL
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has overproduction of VLDL
High VLDL and cholesterol, subnormal LDL and HDL
Coronary disease, T2DM, obesity, alcoholism
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has atherosclerosis and thrombosis due to inhibition of fibrinolysis
Familial lipoprotein A excess
Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia that has high HDL levels
Familial hypolipoproteinemia that has a defect in loading of Apo B
Low TAG, accumulation of TAG in liver and intestines
Treatment: high dose water soluble vitamins particularly vitamin E