Flashcards in Little Bit of Everything - Shelby Deck (50):
Normal Heart Sounds
Normal cardiac cycle includes two sounds – lub-dub
Abnormal Heart Sounds
Called a murmur. Can sound soft and blowing or loud and booming.
Normal Lung/Breath Sounds
Breathing patterns should be even and consistent with full inspiratory and expiratory cycles.
Rate speeds up and slows down over one to three minutes
Series of normal breaths followed by a complete cessation.
Pauses in the respiratory cycle at full inspiration.
Occurs without diaphragmatic breathing.
Oral Body Temperature
Frequently used because it is convenient and accessible; however, it can easily be effected by foods or fluids the patient has ingested. Proper placement is on either side of the frenulum.
Rectal Body Temperature
Most accurate, but inconvenient and unpleasant for patients. Instruct patient to take slow deep breath during insertion. Insert approximately 1.5 inches.
Axillary Body Temperature
Safe and noninvasive. Preferred site for measuring infant temperatures. Pat the armpit dry and insert thermometer in the center of the axilla.
Tympanic Membrane Temperature
Reflects core body temp due to the abundance of arterial blood supply. Fast and accessible. Pull pinna slightly upward and backward, insert probe toward eardrum until snug.
Role of Rapid Full Body Cooling in Exertional Heat Stroke Management
The possibility of death from heatstroke can be significantly reduced if the victim’s body temperature is lowered as soon as possible. It is often suggested the patient be cooled prior to transport.
When is Epi-Pen Warranted
Use of an Epi-Pen is warranted when an athlete begins to show signs or symptoms of life-threatening anaphylaxis (shortness of breath, fast/weak pulse, confusion, LOC, etc)
How to Administer an Epi-Pen
Firmly grasp the Epi-Pen, pull of the blue safety release, firmly insert the orange tip into the outer thigh until you hear the Epi-Pen click. Hold against thigh for 10 seconds, remove Epi-Pen, and massage injection site for 10 seconds.
S&S: muscle pain, muscle weakness/trouble moving, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, fever, confusion, and dark red/brown urine.
How to treat Rhabdomyolysis
Early and aggressive hydration. If diagnosis is progressed, hospitalization may be necessary to replace fluids and assess kidney damage.
S&S: cramping, extreme muscle weakness, rapid breathing, athlete appearing “slumped”, and muscles look/feel normal.
How to treat Exertional Sickling
Stop activity, monitor vitals, activate EMS
S&S: dizzy, headache, profuse sweating, wet/clammy skin, slightly elevated body temperature, rapid/weak HR.
S&S: disoriented, unconscious, no sweating, dry/hot/red skin, Body Temp greater than 104, rapid/strong HR.
S&S: progressively worsening headache, nausea/vomiting, swelling in hands/feet, lethargy, and low blood sodium.
How to treat Hyponatremia
Do not try to rehydrate, transport to medical facility. Sodium levels must be increased and fluid levels decreased.
S&S: blood glucose >200 mg/dL, gradual onset, abdominal pain, thirst, fruity odor on breath, dehydration, lethargy, and confusion.
Treatment of Ketoacidosis
Insulin should be administered immediately; athlete should be transported for examination and monitoring. Treatment also includes rehydration and restoration of electrolyte balance.
Only the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Skin appears pale, hard, cold, and waxy. May produce blisters after rewarming.
Treatment of Superficial Frostbite
Rewarm tissue by immersing the area in warm water (100-110 degrees). Do not rub affected area.
Serious injury indicating tissues that are frozen. Medical emergency that requires immediate hospitalization. Tissue is cold, hard, pale or white, and numb.
Major Signs & Symptoms of Shock
Moist/pale/cool/clammy skin, weak/rapid pulse, increased and shallow respiratory rate, decreased blood pressure, and restlessness.
Basic Management of Shock
Maintain body temperature as close to normal as possible. Elevate the feet and legs 8-12 inches. Cover patient with a blanket. Reassure and calm patient.
Toxic Drug Overdoses
S&S: problems with vitals, sleepiness/confusion/coma, skin can be cool and sweaty or hot and dry, chest pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain/nausea/vomiting, and specific drugs can damage specific organs.
Treatment of Drug Overdoses
Take precaution when dealing with a patient suspected of drug overdose. Generally professional treatment is required, either in a hospital or a doctor’s office. Life-threatening situations are medical emergencies.
Danger lies in the difficulty of diagnosis. Occurs either as a bruise or contusion, intramuscularly, or in joints. If internal hemorrhage is suspected, monitor blood pressure. All severe hemorrhaging will result in shock.
Treatment of Internal Hemorrhaging
Treat the shock and transport to hospital when stable to monitor and determine nature of internal hemorrhage.
Nebulizer Treatment for Asthma
Not ideal for daily medications as it can be time consuming. Nebulizer administers liquid medicine via facemask. Where the mask and breathe in the medicine at a slow, deep rate of respiration. Treatment usually lasts 10 minutes.
Metered-Dose Inhaler & Patient Condition
Based on the patient’s personal best peak flow meter reading, look at what zone the patient falls into. Green (80-100%) breathing is normal. Yellow (60-80%) use caution in continuing activity, the “rescue medicine” may be administered. Red (below 60%) activity should be stopped and nebulizer/inhaler treatment should be administered.
Placed on fingertip to assess oxygen saturation. Normal Reading: 95-100% saturation. Values under 90% are considered low (hypoxic).
Abnormal Pulse Oximeter Readings
Readings under 80% should consider the use of supplemental oxygen. Hypoxic readings should be referred to family doctor of ER in emergent situations.
Oxygen via Nasal Cannula
Held in place over the victim’s ears, oxygen is delivered at a low level through 2 small prongs inserted into the nostrils. 24-44% oxygen concentration
Face mask with an oxygen reservoir bag & one-way valve between the mask & bag; patient inhales oxygen from the bag and exhaled air escapes through flutter valves on the side of the mask. Up to 90% oxygen concentration.
Check cylinder, clear the valve, attach the regulator, open the cylinder and check pressure, and finally attach the delivery device. Turn the unit on and adjust the flow necessary for the delivery device, verify oxygen flow, and place delivery device on patient.
Airway Suctioning Indications
To remove secretions, blood, or vomitus from a patient’s airway. Also for standby use in preparation for endotracheal intubation.
Curved, hollow tube that is used to create an open conduit through the mouth and posterior pharynx.
Soft rubber or plastic, hollow tube that is passed through the nose into the posterior pharynx.
These devices prevent the tongue from occluding the airway and thereby provide an open conduit for air to pass.
Airway Adjuncts Role in Maintaining Airway
Devices that ventilate patient by delivering anesthetic gases/oxygen above the level of the vocal cords and are designed to overcome disadvantage of endotracheal intubation.
Hospital Trauma Levels
Hospital trauma centers ranked either I, II, III, IV, or V. This ranking can determine where a patient is sent based on the patient’s condition. You would not want to send an emergent trauma patient to a Level V center.
Recent studies have shown that a cordless screwdriver eliminates a lot of excess movement, which reduces further injury. If not, using the “Trainer’s Angel” will work to remove the facemask.
S&S: Headache, confusion, changes in behavior, dizziness, nausea/vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Often times a patient will appear fine for several days and will then deteriorate quickly.
S&S: confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, severe headache, nausea/vomiting, seizures, enlarged pupil, bruises around eyes/behind ears, clear fluid draining from the nose or ears