Liver/Pancreatic Secretions & Jaundice Flashcards Preview

Jason's GI Block > Liver/Pancreatic Secretions & Jaundice > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver/Pancreatic Secretions & Jaundice Deck (56):
1

what regulates gall bladder function?

CCK

2

how much bile can human liver make per day?

1 L

3

3 most important human bile acids?

cholic acid
deoxycholic acid
chenodeoxycholic acid

4

how much of bile is recycled? from where?

95% from terminal ileum

5

which cells does bicarb and enzymes come from in the pancreas?

bicarb: duct cells
enzymes: acinar cells

6

what are the inactive form of enzymes?

zymogens

7

What regulates pancreatic secretions? where does it come from?

CCK and secretin
from the walls of duodenum

8

cholesterol is soluble? insoluble?

insoluble, will precipitate if not enough bile salts

9

bile salts from what?
bile pigment from what?

salts: cholesterol
pigment: bilirubin

10

Lecithin is generic name for?

phospholipid

11

unconjugated bile acids are more or less acidic that tauroconjugates?

less acidic

12

what is a detergent?

micelles to capture grease

13

example of a detergent?

bile acid

14

any reserve for bile salts to keep cholesterol in micelles?

Nope right at limit, why gall stones are so easily form if over limit

15

What does lipase need to be activated

colipase

16

what is fatty stool called?

steatorrhea

17

What drug makes steatorrhea?

Orlistat

18

What is the total bile salt pool?

3-5g

19

how does margarine lower cholesterol?

plant sterols compete with bile salt absorption receptors

20

How does cholestryamine affect cholesterol:

disrupts negative feedback to make up for excreted cholesterol

21

3 important intestinal secretions:

secretin
Gastrin
Cholescystokinin

22

What does secretin do?

enhances bicarbonate content in pancreatic secretions

23

where is CCK produced?

duodenum

24

CCK does what neurally?

give you satiation feeling

25

what does CCK stimulate? 3 things

gall bladder contraction
pancreas digestive enzyme
promote insulin release

26

what does Trehalase digest?

mushrooms

27

how is Trypsinogen activated?

cleaves a sequence to activate once in the intestine by enteropeptidases

28

how to prevent trypsinogen activation in pancreas?

trypsin inhibitor in small amount in pancreas

29

Amino peptidase
carboxy peptidase
which side break down protein?

Amino: N side
Carboxy: C side

30

two main causes of pancreatitis?

alcohol abuse
Gallstones (women older than 50)

31

decreased pain in a chornic alcoholic could mean?

advanced pancreas destruction

32

Serum lipase or amylase is more sensitive in dx of pancreatitis?

serum lipase

33

what is the most energy expensive thing to digest? carbs? fats or proteins?

proteins

34

how many micromolar bilirubin needed for it to show up in eyes

35 micromolar

35

jaundice categorized into 4?

pre-hepatic
hepatocellular
post-hepatic
neonatal

36

heme oxygenase in macrophages makes what from heme?

biliverdin, iron, CO

37

What does biliverdin reductase do?

reduces biliverdin to unconjugated bilirubin

38

Sources of heme besides old RBCs? 3 things

failed erythropoieses
myoglobin
cytochromes

39

What will patients with jaundice present with re: ALT, AST, GGT, ALP?

All raised

40

what does UDP-glucuronyl transferase do?

adds glucoronic acid to bilirubin twice to conjugate it and make it soluble

41

when bilirubin-albumin enters hepatocyte, first thing that happens?

bilirubin attaches to LIGANDIN

42

Dubin-Johnson syndrome is problem with?

cMOAT

43

which big drug interferes with bilirubin reuptake?

Rifampicin

44

What heavy metal bad for liver?

Copper (wilson's disease)

45

classic pre-hepatic jaundice is caused by?

haemolysis and increase unconjugated plasma bilirubin

46

prevalence of neonatal jaundice?

1:3

47

what usually causes neonatal jaundice?

immature liver need time to build up LIGANDIN and UDP
change over from foetal to adult haemoglobin Hby to HbB

48

other pathological causes of neonatal jaundice?

ABO-RH incompatibility
birth trauma
premature
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

49

Gilbert's Disease?

1:20
decreased conjugation of bilirubin with fasting (normal biopsy and lifespan)

50

Why are fava beans bad for someone with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency?

fava beans has divicin and causes oxidative stress and leads to haemolytic anaemia

51

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency confers resistance to?

Malaria

52

what is the most common human enzyme deficiency? 400 million ppl

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

53

What does glutathione do?

antioxidants

54

Who shouldn't take chloroquine?

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency people

55

what is cholroquine?

oldest of antimalarials

56

jaundice in newborn with bilateral cataracts?

galactosaemia