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Flashcards in Long Term Memory Deck (25):

Describe serial position in relation to LTM
(first "study" on LTM- Murdoch)

Read list, write down all words remembered- memory better for stimuli at end of list
-recency effect
-stimuli likely still in STM
Memory better for stimuli at beginning of list
-primacy effect
-more time to rehearse, more likely to enter LTM


double dissociation in relation to STM & LTM

STM & LTM are supported by different mechanisms; can be independent
If 2 processes share regions and functions they might be more likely to be a double dissociation (independent)
Clive Wearing and HM- functioning STM but can't form new LTMs

KF- poor STM but functioning LTM


How is coding different for LTM & STM?

LTM predominantly semantic coding - remember meaning, not exact wording. also visual and auditory (recognize a face or a voice)
STM- auditory, visual and SOME semantic


Types of LTM- Implicit?

non/declarative- unconscious memory that influences behavior (non-knowing)
-priming: previous experience changes response w/o conscious awareness


Types of LTM- Explicit?

declarative- conscious memory
-episodic; personal events/episodes
-semantic: facts, knowledge


Describe repetition priming
(Implicit Memory)

presentation of stimulus affects performance on that stimulus when presented again (words seen previously were easier to complete when presented with fragments later)
-forgetting rate slower for implicit memory
Korsakoff's syndrome patients: participants had to identify fragmented pictures- improved with training but no memory of training


procedural memory
(Implicit Memory)

skill memory- memory for actions. we don't remember where or when learned
perform procedures w/o being consciously aware of how to do them
amnesics who can't form new LTMs can still learn new skills (HM and mirror tracing)


classical conditioning for implicit memory

pair neutral stimulus with a reflexive response
condition reflexive response to occur in response to the neutral stimulus (dog chasing cat at ringing of bell)


Autobiographical memory-LTM

recollected events from person's past
can contain episodic and semantic components (depending on how long ago)
Some people have superior autobiographical memory- extremely large temporal lobe and caudate nucleus
-also have ocd-like tendencies, categorizing



episodic: involves mental time travel; no guarantee of accuracy. uses MTL, PFC
semantic: does not involve mental time travel; general knowledge including facts, dates. uses neocortex

double dissociation between episodic and semantic (independent from one another)
retrieval of each memory type activates diff. brain areas


Connection btw episodic and semantic

Episodic can be lost, leaving only semantic- knowledge acquired may start as episodic but will fade to semantic

Semantic can be enhanced if associated with episodic-
personal semantic memory- semantic memories with personal significance. it can influence what we experience (episodic) by determining what we attend to


What is the cause of most memory failures?

failure to retrieve (rather than encode)


Adaptive memory

more likely to remember things related to survival or important for survival- even unconsciously


Which task causes deeper processing?
-using a word in a sentence
-deciding how useful an object might be on a desert island

While we cant to say the latter- we can't empirically measure the memory trace in each condition. therefore this is circular reasoning

depth of processing has not been defined independently of memory performance


Give examples of factors that aid Encoding

-creating connections, cues for remembering
- self-reference effect
-chunking, categories
-testing effect


What does retrieval rehearsal do?

more than strengthens associations ; organizes and integrates to help with later recall
relates new material to what you already know
creates effective retrieval cues when created by the person who uses them
actively generates info to improve match btw cue & knowledge


Encoding specificity

we learn info together with its context because location can be used as a retrieval cue
best recall occurred when encoding & retrieval occurred in same location


State-dependent learning

Learning associated with a particular internal state- better memory if person's mood at encoding matches mood at retrieval


Transfer-appropriate processing

Memory performance better if type of task at encoding matches that at retrieval


What does consolidation do for memory?

It stabilizes memory for an event. Transforms new memories from fragile to permanent state.
-synaptic consolidation occurs at synapses, rapid (mins)
-systems consolidation a gradual reorganization of circuits in brain, longer time scale (wks/mos/yrs)
Memory is more fragile for recent than remote events
eg graded amnesia- amnesia more severe for events just prior to injury, less severe for earlier remote memories


Is the hippocampus required for memory?

Some say only during consolidation- but this is controversial.
Reactivation- main mechanism of consolidation
- HC replays neural activity associated with memory
-occurs during sleep or relaxation; can be enhanced by conscious rehearsal


Are memories ever permanent? Explain evidence

human memory a 'work in progress'
studies of PTSD and anxiety patients have used propranolol to reduce physiological response- can be helpful


Can they be forgotten?

Reconsolidation suggests memories are reactivated each time they're consolidated; might allow for changes or erasures to original memory


Talk about construction of memory

Influenced by a person's knowledge, experiences, expectations and culture
Pragmatic inferences are made using knowledge from experience
Schemas and scripts sometimes lead us to false memories, though they allow us to fill in the blanks. Perfect memory not so good- lack of creativity


The longer the time in between being asked to remember a list of words and asked to recall... what will happen to primacy and recency effect?

primacy effect is bigger- remembers info at beginning even more so
30 sec delay eliminates recency effect- both effects are likely separate and can operate with or w/o the other