Long-term memory Flashcards Preview

AS Psy - Memory > Long-term memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Long-term memory Deck (19):
1

Who believed that we had more than one type of long term memory?

Tulving

2

What are the three types of LTM?

Episodic, Semantic and Procedural

3

What is episodic memory?

a long-term memory store for personal events. It includes memories of when the events occurred and of the people, objects, places and behaviours involved. Memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort.

4

What is semantic memory?

a long-term memory store for our knowledge of the world. This includes faces and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately.

5

what is procedural memory?

a long-term memory store for our knowledge of how to do things. This includes our memories of learned skills. We usually recall these memories without making a conscious or deliberate effort.

6

which memory is likened to an encyclopaedia?

semantic

7

which types of memories are time stamped?

episodic

8

which episodic memories are more likely to be remembered?

traumatic events due to their high emotional content. (coding)

9

how is episodic memory coded?

The prefrontal cortex brain area is associated with the initial coding of episodic memories, with storage of the memoires associated with the neocortex. Memories of the different parts of an event are located in the different visual, auditory, olfactory areas of the brain but are connected together in the hippocampus to create a memory of an episode rather than remaining a collection of separate memories.

10

How did Tulving prove that episodic and semantic LTMS involve different brain areas?

Six volunteers were injected with radioactive gold, performed 8 trials, 4 semantic and 4 episodic (randomised order)

Results: 3 had inconclusive data. 3 showed differences in blood flow patterns between semantic and episodic thinking. There was greater activation in the frontal lobes of the cortex - episodic. greater activation in the posterior region of the cortex - semantic

11

where is episodic memory activated?

frontal cortex

12

where is semantic memory activated?

posterior region of the cortex.

13

evaluate Tulvings gold study.

+ impaired episodic memory usually caused by brain damage to frontal lobes.
- only 3/6 participants showed differences.
- Tulving and his wife were participants, may have been biased.

14

when was tulvings study conducted?

1989

15

is the episodic memory: declarative? time stamped? emotive? implicit?

Declarative
Time-stamped
Emotive
Explicit

16

is the semantic memory: declarative? time stamped? emotive? implicit?

Declarative
Not time-stamped
Not emotive
Implicit

17

is the procedural memory: declarative? time stamped? emotive? implicit?

Non-declarative
Not time-stamped
Not emotive
Implicit

18

which two memories are linked together and why?

episodic and semantic, new knowledge tends to be learnt through experiences. overtime, info will move from episodic to semantic as knowledge divorces from the event that it was learnt from.

19

What was the experiment that provided evidence for the procedural memory?

Van Gorp et al (1999) - Compared 37 heavy cocaine users with 27 non-abusing controls on memory ability for a 45-day period after abstaining from the drug. The interesting finding was that the former cocaine users showed a faster increase in procedural memory ability than non-users. As abstinence from cocaine causes dopamine production to be much increased, it suggests dopamine plays a part in procedural LTM