Lower Extremity, Snell Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Extremity, Snell Deck (267):
1

Pelvic girdle: # of bones

4

2

Pelvic girdle: Bones

1) 2 hip bones
2) Sacrum
3) Coccyx

3

Hip bone: Articulates with the head of the femur

Acetabulum

4

Hip bone: Articular vs non articular: Acetabular fossa

Non articular

5

Hip bone: Runs between asis and psis

Iliac crest

6

Hip bone: Articulates with the opposite hip bone

Pubic bone at the pubic crest and tubercle

7

Hip bone: Obturator foramen is bound by

1) Ischium
2) Pubis

8

Femur: Fits into the acetabulum

Head

9

Femur: Small depression at the center of the head

Fovea capitis

10

Femur: Fovea capitis is for the attachment of

Ligament of the head

11

Femur: Vessel conveyed along the ligament of the head to enter the bone at the fovea

Obturator artery

12

Femur: Junction of neck and shaft

1) Trochanters
2) Intertrochanteric line

13

Femur: Attached to the intertrochanteric line

Iliofemoral ligament; pubofemoral at lower end

14

Femur: Ridge on the posterior portion of shaft

Linea aspera

15

Femur: Medial margin of linea aspera continues below as

Medial supracondylar ridge

16

Femur: Lateral margin of linea aspera continues below as

Lateral supracondylar ridge

17

Femur: Medial supracondylar ridge ends as the

Adductor tubercle

18

Femur: On the posterior surface of the shaft below the greater trochanter

Gluteal tuberosity for gluteus maximus

19

Femur: Flat triangular area on the posterior surface of the lower end

Popliteal surface

20

Femur: Lateral and medial condyles are separated posteriorly by

Intercondylar notch

21

Femur: Lateral and medial condyles are separated anteriorly by

Articular surface for patella

22

Femur: Superior to the condyles

Medial and lateral epicondyles

23

Femur: Adductor tubercle is continuous with

Medial epicondyle

24

Femur: Main blood supply to the head

Medial femoral circumflex

25

Femur: Common complication of femoral neck fractures due to interruption of the main blood supply to the head

Avascular necrosis of head

26

Sesamoid bone

A bone that develops within a tendon

27

Largest sesamoid bone in the body

Patella

28

Patella: Lies within the tendon of the

Quadriceps femoris

29

Patella: Shape

Triangular

30

Patella, apex: Superior vs inferior

Inferior

31

Patella, apex: Connected to what bone

Tuberosity of tibia

32

Patella, apex: Connected to the tuberosity of the tibia by the

Ligamentum patellae

33

Patella: Posterior surface articulates with

Condyles of femur

34

Tibia: Medial vs lateral

Medial

35

Tibia: Articulate with the lateral and medial condyles of femur

Lateral and medial condyles

36

Tibia: Lateral aspect of the lateral condyle

Oval articular facet for the head of fibula

37

Tibia: Anterior border is prolonged downward to form

Medial malleolus

38

Tibia: Provides attachment for interosseous membrane

Lateral border of tibia

39

Tibia: Lower end shows a wide, rough depression on its lateral surface for articulation with

Fibula

40

Fibula: T/F Takes part in articulation at the knee joint

F

41

Fibula: T/F Forms part in the ankle joint

T

42

Fibula: Forms the upper end (2)

1) Head
2) Articular surface for lateral condyle of tibia

43

Fibula: Distal end

1) Styloid process
2) Lateral malleolus

44

Fibula: Shaft attached to tibia by

Interosseous membrane

45

Fibula: Winds around neck

Common peroneal nerve

46

Tarsal Bones

The Circus Needs More Interesting Little Clowns
1) Talus
2) Calcaneum
3) Navicular
4) Medial cuneiform
5) Intermediate cuneiform
6) Lateral cuneiform
7) Cuboid

47

Tarsal Bones: Largest bone of the foot

Calcaneum

48

Tarsal Bones, calcaneum: Articulations

1) Superiorly with the talus
2) Anteriorly with the cuboid

49

Tarsal Bones, calcaneum: Shelflike ridge on medial surface

Sustentaculum tali

50

Tarsal Bones, calcaneum: Function of sustentaculum tali

Supports talus

51

Talus: Articulations

1) Superiorly with the tibia and fibula
2) Inferiorly with the calcaneum
3) Anteriorly with the navicular bone

52

Talus: Muscles attached

None

53

Navicular: Attached to its tuberosity

Tibialis posterior tendon

54

Cuboid: Deep groove on inferior aspect is attached to

Peroneus longus tendon

55

Cuneiform: Wedge shape maintains

Transverse arch of foot

56

Metatarsals: Attached to the prominent tubercle on the base of 5th metatarsal

Peroneus brevis tendon

57

Hip joint: Bridges the acetabular notch

Transverse acetabular ligament

58

Hip joint: Ligaments

1) Iliofemoral
2) Ischiofemoral
3) Pubofemoral

59

Hip joint: Strongest and most important ligament

Iliofemoral ligament of Bigelow

60

Iliofemoral ligament: Shape

Inverted Y

61

Iliofemoral ligament: Base attached to

ASIS

62

Iliofemoral ligament: 2 limbs attached to

Intertrochanteric line

63

Iliofemoral ligament: Resists

Hyperextension and lateral rotation

64

Pubofemoral ligament: Shape

Triangular

65

Pubofemoral ligament: Base

Superior ramus of pubis

66

Pubofemoral ligament: Apex

Lower end of intertrochanteric line

67

Pubofemoral ligament: Resists

Abduction and lateral rotation

68

Ischiofemoral ligament: Shape

Spiral

69

Ischiofemoral ligament: Attachments

1) Body of ischium
2) Greater trochanter

70

Ischiofemoral ligament: Limits

Medial rotation

71

Ligament of head of femur: Shape

Flat and triangular

72

Ligament of head of femur: Apex

Fovea capitis

73

Ligament of head of femur: Base

1) Transverse acetabular ligament
2) Margins of acetabular notch

74

Ligament of head of femur: Resists

Adduction, slightly

75

Hip joint: Nerve supply (3)

1) Femoral
2) Obturator
3) Sciatic

76

Hip joint: Flexion (4)

RAISe
1) Rectus femoris
2) Adductors
3) Iliopsoas
4) Sartorius

77

Hip joint: Extension (2)

1) Gluteus maximus
2) Hamstrings

78

Hip joint: Abduction (5)

1) Gluteus medius
2) Gluteus minimus
3) Sartorius
4) Tensor fascia lata
5) Piriformis

79

Hip joint: Adduction (5)

Shorten the GAAAP
1) Gracilis
2) Adductor longus
3) Adductor brevis
4) Adductor magnus
5) Pectineus

80

Hip joint: Lateral rotation (7)

GQ POG
1) Gluteus maximus
2) Quadratus femoris
3) Piriformis
4) Obturator internus and externus
5) Superior and inferior gemelli

81

Hip joint: Medial rotation (3)

1) Anterior fibers of gluteus medius
2) Anterior fibers of gluteus minimus
3) Tensor fascia lata

82

Hip joint: Combination of all movements

Circumduction

83

Hip joint: Anterior

Femoral vessels and nerves

84

Hip joint: Posterior

Sciatic nerve

85

Hip joint: Stability depends on

1) Gluteus medius and minimus
2) Head of femur
3) Neck of femur

86

Hip joint: Hip sinks on opposite unsupported side

Trendelenburg sign

87

Knee joint: Articulations

1) Condyles of femur superiorly
2) Condyles of tibia and their menisci inferiorly
3) Lower end of femur and patella anteriorly

88

Knee joint: Type between tibia and femur

Synovial hinge

89

Knee joint: Type between patella and femur

Synovial gliding

90

Knee joint: Capsule is deficient

Anteriorly where it pouches superiorly beneath the quadriceps tendon forming the suprapatellar bursa

91

Knee joint: Extracapsular ligaments

1) Ligamentum patellae
2) Lateral collateral ligament
3) Medial collateral ligament
4) Oblique popliteal ligament

92

Knee joint: Ligamentum patellae is a continuation of

Quadriceps femoris tendon

93

Knee joint: Lateral collateral ligament is attached to

1) Lateral condyle of the femur superiorly
2) Head of fibula inferiorly

94

Knee joint: Lateral collateral ligament is separated from the lateral meniscus by the

Popliteus

95

Knee joint: Medial collateral ligament is attached to

1) Medial condyle of femur superiorly
2) Medial surface of shaft of tibia

96

Knee joint: Medial collateral ligament is strongly attached to

Medial meniscus

97

Knee joint: Strengthens the back of capsule

Oblique popliteal ligament

98

Knee joint: Oblique popliteal ligament is an expansion of

Semimembranosus

99

Knee joint: Intracapsular ligaments

Cruciate ligaments

100

Knee joint: Cruciate ligaments are termed anterior and posterior according to

Tibial attachments

101

Anterior cruciate ligament: Attachments

1) Anterior intercondylar area of tibia inferiorly
2) Upward, backward, and laterally to the lateral femoral condyle

102

Posterior cruciate ligament: Attachments

1) Posterior intercondylar area of tibia inferiorly
2) Upward, forward, and medially to the medial femoral condyle

103

Knee joint: Upper surface of menisci are in contact with

Femoral condyles

104

Knee joint: Lower surface of menisci are in contact with

Tibial condyles

105

Knee joint: Each meniscus is attached to the tibia by

Anterior and posterior horns

106

Knee joint: Function of menisci

Deepen the articular surfaces of tibial condyles

107

Knee joint: Medial vs lateral, damaged more frequently

Medial

108

Knee joint, synovial membrane: Prolonged downward posteriorly to form the popliteal bursa behind

Popliteus tendon

109

Knee joint, synovial membrane: Reflected backward from the ligamentum patellae to form

Infrapatellar fold

110

Knee joint, bursae: Largest

Suprapatellar bursa

111

Knee joint, bursae: Always communicate with knee joint

1) Suprapatellar
2) Popliteal

112

Knee joint, bursae: Between patella and skin

Prepatellar bursa

113

Knee joint, bursae: Between ligamentum patella and skin

Superficial infrapatellar bursa

114

Knee joint, bursae: Between ligamentum patella and tibia

Deep infrapatellar bursa

115

Knee joint, bursae: Semimembranosus bursa lies between

Semimembranosus tendon and medial condyle of tibia

116

Knee joint: Nerve supply (4)

1) Femoral
2) Obturator
3) Common peroneal
4) Tibial

117

Knee joint, muscles: Flexion

1) Biceps femoris
2) Semitendinosus
3) Semimembranosus

118

Knee joint, muscles: Extension

Quadriceps femoris

119

Knee joint, muscles: Medial rotation

1) Sartorius
2) Semitendinosus
3) Gracilis

120

Knee joint, muscles: Lateral rotation

Biceps femoris

121

Knee joint: Most stable in what position

Full extension

122

Knee joint, muscles: Most important muscle group that stabilizes the knee joint and capable of stabilizing it in the presence of torn ligaments

Quadriceps femoris

123

Ankle joint: Formed by articulations among which bones

1) Tibia
2) Malleoli
3) Talus

124

Ankle joint: Type of joint

Synovial hinge

125

Ankle joint: Stronger, medial vs lateral ligament

Medial

126

Ankle joint: Nerve supply

1) Deep peroneal
2) Tibial

127

Ankle joint: More extensive, inversion vs eversion

Inversion

128

Ankle joint muscles: Eversion (4)

1) Peroneus longus
2) Peroneus brevis
3) Peronius tertius
4) Lateral tendons of extensor digitorum longus

129

Gluteal region: Boundaries

1) Iliac crest superiorly
2) Fold of the buttock inferiorly

130

Gluteal region muscles: Inferior gluteal nerve

Gluteus maximus

131

Gluteal region: Superior gluteal nerve (3)

1) Gluteus medius
2) Gluteus minimus
3) Tensor fascia latae

132

Gluteal region: S1 and S2

Piriformis

133

Gluteal region: Sacral plexus (4)

1) Obturator internus
2) Superior and inferior gemelli
3) Quadratus femoris

134

Gluteal region, fascia: Deep fascia is continuous with

Fascia lata

135

Gluteal region: Deep fascia splits to enclose

Gluteus maximus

136

Greater sciatic foramen is formed by

1) Greater sciatic notch
2) Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments

137

Lesser sciatic foramen is formed by

1) Lesser sciatic notch
2) Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments

138

Greater sciatic formen contents

Piriformis PINS PINS
1) Piriformis
2) Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
3) Inferior and superior gluteal nerve
4) Nerve to obturator internus
5) Sciatic nerve
6) Pudendal nerve
7) Internal pudendal vessels
8) Nerve to quadratus femoris
9) Superior and inferior gluteal vessels

139

Lesser sciatic foramen contents

PINT
1) Pudendal nerve
2) Internal pudendal vessels
3) Nerve to obturator internus
4) Tendon of obturator internus

140

Thigh: Compartments

1) Anterior
2) Posterior
3) Medial

141

Thigh: Deep fascia

Fascia lata

142

Thigh: Deep fascia, shape

Trouser

143

Thigh: Deep fascia attached superiorly to

Pelvis

144

Thigh: Thickening of fascia lata on lateral side

Iliotibial tract

145

Thigh: Iliotibial tract is attached superiorly to

Iliac tubercle

146

Thigh: Iliotibial tract is attached inferiorly to

Lateral condyle of tibia

147

Thigh: Iliotibial tract is the insertion of

1) Gluteus maximus
2) Tensor fascia lata

148

Thigh: Gap in deep fascia in front of the thigh just below the inguinal ligament

Saphenous opening

149

Thigh: Saphenous opening transmits

1) Great saphenous vein
2) Branches of femoral artery
3) Lymphatic vessels

150

Thigh: Saphenous opening is filled with loose connective tissue called

Cribriform fascia

151

Thigh, nerve supply: Anterior compartment

Femoral

152

Thigh, nerve supply: Posterior compartment

Sciatic

153

Thigh, nerve supply: Medial

Obturator

154

Femoral triangle: Borders

SAIL
1) Sartorius laterally
2) Adductor longus medially
3) Inguinal ligament superiorly

155

Femoral triangle: Contents

1) Femoral nerve
2) Femoral sheath
3) Femoral artery
4) Femoral vein
5) Inguinal nodes

156

Femoral sheath: Downward protrusion of

1) Fascia transversalis
2) Fascia iliaca

157

Femoral sheath: Approx ___ below inguinal ligament

1in or 2.5cm

158

Femoral sheath: Contents (lateral to medial)

1) Femoral artery
2) Femoral vein
3) Lymphatic vessels

159

Thigh, anterior compartment: All are supplied by femoral nerve except

Psoas

160

Thigh, anterior compartment: Psoas muscle is supplied by

Lumbar plexus

161

Thigh, anterior compartment: Muscles (7)

VIP PQRST
[1) Vastus lateralis, intermedius, medialis]
2) Iliacus
3) Psoas
4) Pectineus
5) Quadriceps femoris
[6) Rectus femoris]
7) Sartorius
8) Tensor fascia lata

162

Thigh, anterior compartment: Quadriceps femoris group

1) Rectus femoris
2) Vastus lateralis
3) Vastus intermedius
4) Vastus medius

163

Thigh, medial compartment: Muscles (5)

1) Gracilis
2) Adductor longus
3) Adductor brevis
4) Adductor magnus
5) Obturator externus

164

Thigh, posterior compartment: Muscles

1) Biceps femoris
2) Semitendinosus
3) Semimebranosus
4) Adductor magnus

165

Thigh: Small medial compartment of femoral sheath occupied by lymphatics

Femoral canal

166

Thigh: Site of femoral hernia

Femoral canal

167

Thigh: Upper opening of femoral canal filled by extra peritoneal fat (femoral septum)

Femoral ring

168

Femoral ring: Anterior

Inguinal ligament

169

Femoral ring: Posterior

Superior ramus of pubis and pectineal ligament

170

Femoral ring: Lateral

Femoral vein

171

Femoral ring: Medial

Lacunar ligament

172

Femoral hernia: Women vs men

Women

173

Femoral ring: Hernial sac

Below and lateral to the pubic tubercle

174

Femoral ring: Hernial sac neck, anterior

Inguinal ligament

175

Femoral ring: Hernial sac neck, posterior

Pectineal ligament

176

Femoral ring: Hernial sac neck, lateral

Femoral vein

177

Femoral ring: Hernial sac neck, medial

Lacunar ligament

178

Intermuscular cleft on the medial aspect of the middle 3rd of thigh beneath the sartorius

Adductor canal

179

Adductor canal: Aka (2)

1) Subsartorial canal
2) Hunter's canal

180

Adductor canal: Walls, posterior

Adductor magnus

181

Adductor canal: Walls, lateral

Vastus medialis

182

Adductor canal: Walls, anteromedial

Sartorius

183

Adductor canal: Contents

1) Femoral artery and vein
2) Deep lymph vessels
3) Saphenous nerve
4) Nerve to vastus medialis

184

Popliteal fossa: Shape

Diamond

185

Popliteal fossa: Contents

1) Popliteal vessels
2) Small saphenous vein
3) Common peroneal nerve
4) Tibial nerve
5) Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
6) Connective tissue and lymph nodes

186

Popliteal fossa: Boundaries, lateral

1) Biceps femoris superiorly
2) Gastrocnemius and plantaris inferiorly

187

Popliteal fossa: Boundaries, medial

1) Semimembranosus and senitendinosus superiorly
2) Gastrocnemius inferiorly

188

Leg: Compartments

1) Anterior
2) Posterior
3) Lateral

189

Leg: Muscles of anterior compartment (4)

1) Tibialis anterior
2) Extensor digitorum longus
3) Extensor hallucis longus
4) Peroneus tertius

190

Leg: Nerve supply to the anterior compartment

Deep peroneal

191

Leg: Muscles of lateral compartment (2)

1) Peroneus longus
2) Peroneus brevis

192

Leg: Nerve supply to the lateral compartment

Superficial peroneal nerve

193

Leg: Posterior compartment, superficial group (3)

1) Gastrocnemius
2) Plantaris
3) Soleus

194

Leg: Posterior compartment, deep group (4)

1) Popliteus
2) Flexor digitorum longus
3) Flexor hallucis longus
4) Tibialis posterior

195

Leg: Posterior compartment is supplied by

Tibial nerve

196

Muscle on dorsum of foot

Extensor digitorum brevis

197

Ankle, retinacula: Attached to the distal ends of the anterior borders of tibia and fibula

Superior extensor retinaculum

198

Ankle, retinacula: Y-shaped band located in front of the ankle joint

Inferior extensor retinaculum

199

Ankle, retinacula: From medial malleolus to medial surface of calcaneum

Flexor retinaculum

200

Arches of foot: Forms the transverse arch (3)

1) Base of metatarsals
2) Cuboid
3) 3 cuneiform bones

201

Arches of foot: Forms the lateral longitudinal arch (3)

1) Base of 4th and 5th metatarsals
2) Cuboid
3) Calcaneum

202

Arches of foot: Medial longitudinal arch (3)

1) First 3 metatarsals
2) Navicular
3) Talus
4) 3 cuneiform bones

203

Femoral artery: Continuation of the

External iliac artery

204

Femoral artery: Begins at

Behind inguinal ligament

205

Femoral artery: Leaves anterior thigh through

Opening in adductor magnus

206

Femoral artery: Enters popliteal space as

Popliteal artery

207

Femoral artery: Branch that arises just below the inguinal ligament and runs upward to the abdominal wall

Superficial epigastric artery

208

Femoral artery: Large branch that supplies the structures of the 3 compartments of the thigh

Profunda femoris

209

Vessels of the trochanteric anastomosis (4)

1) Medial femoral circumflex
2) Lateral femoral circumflex
3) Superior gluteal
4) Inferior gluteal

210

Important connection between internal iliac and femoral arteries

Cruciate anastomosis

211

Popliteal artery: Continuation of the

Femoral artery

212

Popliteal artery: Begins at

Opening of the adductor magnus

213

Popliteal artery: Ends at

Lower border of popliteus

214

Popliteal artery: Divides into

Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

215

Anterior tibial artery: Arises at

Popliteal fossa

216

Anterior tibial artery: Branch of

Popliteal artery

217

Anterior tibial artery: Supplies

Anterior compartment of leg

218

Anterior tibial artery: Ends as

Dorsalis pedis

219

Dorsalis pedis artery: Continuation of

Anterior tibial artery

220

Dorsalis pedis artery: Joins what artery to form the plantar arch

Lateral plantar artey

221

Posterior tibial artery: Descends into

Posterior compartment of leg

222

Posterior tibial artery: Terminates where

Behind medial mallelous

223

Posterior tibial artery: Terminates as

Medial and lateral plantar arteries

224

Veins: Drains medial side of leg

Great saphenous vein

225

Veins: Drains lateral side of leg

Small saphenous vein

226

Great saphenous vein: Ascends behind vs in front of medial malleolus

In front

227

Great saphenous vein: Ascends through the leg with

Saphenous nerve

228

Great saphenous vein: In front vs behind knee

Behind

229

Great saphenous vein: Joins femoral vein by passing through

Saphenous opening in the deep fascia

230

Great saphenous vein: Tributaries near its termination

1) Superficial circumflex iliac
2) Superficial epigastric
3) Superficial external pudendal

231

Great saphenous vein: Constant position

Anterior to medial malleolus

232

Vein: Most commonly used as a bypass graft

Great saphenous vein

233

Small saphenous vein: Behind vs in front of lateral malleolus

Behind

234

Small saphenous vein: Ascends accompanied by

Sural nerve

235

Small saphenous vein: Drains into

Popliteal vein

236

All lymph vessels of the lower limb drain into

Deep inguinal nodes

237

Superficial inguinal nodes: Location

Below the inguinal ligament

238

Superficial inguinal nodes, horizontal group: Receives lymph from (5)

1) Anterior abdominal wall below umbilicus
2) Perineum
3) External genitalia (except testes)
4) Lower half of anal canal
5) Skin of buttocks

239

Superficial inguinal nodes, vertical group: Receives lymph from

Most of the superficial vessels of lower limb

240

Deep inguinal nodes: #

3

241

Deep inguinal nodes: Location

Medial side of femoral vein and femoral canal

242

Deep inguinal nodes: Drain into

External iliac nodes

243

Popliteal nodes: Receive lymph from (3)

1) Lateral side of foot
2) Back of calf
3) Lateral side of calf

244

Femoral nerve: Arises from

Lumbar plexus (L234)

245

Femoral nerve: Terminates by dividing into

Anterior and posterior divisions

246

Femoral nerve: Cutaneous branches supply (3)

1) Medial surface of thigh
2) Anterior surface of thigh
3) Medial side of foot

247

Obturator nerve: Arises from

Lumbar plexus (L234)

248

Obturator nerve: Divides into

Anterior and posterior divisions

249

Obturator nerve: Cutaneous branch

Medial side of thigh

250

Sciatic nerve: Arises from

Sacral plexus (L45S123)

251

Sciatic nerve: Appears below what muscle

Piriformis

252

Sciatic nerve: Covered by what muscle

Gluteus maximus

253

Sciatic nerve: Divides into

1) Tibial nerve
2) Common peroneal nerve

254

Tibial nerve: Divides into

Medial and lateral plantar nerves

255

Tibial nerve: Cutaneous branches

1) Sural nerve
2) Medial calcaneal nerve

256

Tibial nerve: Cutaneous supply

1) Calf
2) Back of leg
3) Lateral border of foot
4) Lateral side of little toe
5) Medial surface of heel

257

Common peroneal nerve: Pierces

Peroneus longus

258

Common peroneal nerve: Divides into

Superficial and deep peroneal

259

Superficial peroneal nerve: Cutaneous supply

Dorsum of foot except between the first and second toes

260

Deep peroneal nerve: Cutaneous supply

Between the first and second toes

261

Foot drop

Sciatic nerve lesion

262

Hamstrings

1) Semitendinosus 2) Semimembranosus 3) Biceps femoris

263

Femoral artery: Pulse

Midway between asis and symphysis pubis

264

Popliteal artery: Pulse

Popliteal space provided the deep fascia is fully relaxed by passive flexion of knee

265

Anterior tibial artery: Pulse

1) Extensor hallucis longus medially
2) Extensor digitorum longus laterally

266

Dorsalis pedis artery: Pulse

1) Extensor hallucis longus medially
2) Extensor digitorum longus laterally

267

Posterior tibial artery: Pulse

Midway between medial malleolus and heel