Lower Leg, Ankle and Foot Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lower Leg, Ankle and Foot Deck (27)
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1

Hindfoot or Rearfoot Bones and Landmarks

Calcaneus
-Sustentaculum Tali

Talus
-Talar Dome
-Talar Neck

2

Midfoot

Navicular (medial)
Cubiod (lateral)
Cuniforms (I-III)

3

Forefoot

Metatarsals (I-V)
Phalanges (I-V)
Sesamoid Bones (2)

4

Sesamoid Bones

The sesmamoid bones are small oval nodular bones embedded within a tendon, either adjacent to a joint or at sites where tedons are angled about bone surfaces.

The two rounded bones are situated in the tendons of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle.

5

Deltoid Ligament

Attaches the medial malleolus to the tarsal bone.

Apex attaches to the tip of medial malleolus

The broad base fans out and attaches to the talus, navicular and calcaneus.

6

Lateral Ligaments

Anterior Talofibular Ligament
Posterior TaloFibular Ligament
Calcaneofibular Ligament

7

Anterior Talofibular Ligament

Tight during plantar flexion
Resists Inversion when plantar flex
Resist Anterior translation of the talus on the tibia

8

Posterior Talofibular Ligament

Strongest for the three: usually torn in dislocations
Limits posterior translation of the talus on the tibia

9

Calcaneofibular Ligament

Tight in extreme Dorsiflexion
Primary restraint of talar inversion in midrange ROM
Usually torn after the ATF

10

Midtarsal (Transverse Tarsal) Joint

Talonavicular Joint
Calcaneocubiod Joint

11

Anterior Compartment

Extensor Digitorum
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Tibialis Anterior

12

Posterior Superficial Compartment

Soleus
Gastrocnemius

13

Posterior Deep Compartment

Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Flexor Hallucis Longus

14

Lateral Compartment

Peroneus (Fibularis) Longus
Peroneus (Fibularis) Brevis
Peroneus (Fibularis) Tertius

15

Plantar Fascia/Windlass Effect

Fibrous Tissue
Medial Calcaneal Tuberosity
Base of the Digits
Support of the medial longitudinal arch through the "Windlass Effect"

16

Arches of the Foot

Medial Longitudinal Arch
Lateral Longitudinal Arch
Transverse Arch

17

Tarsal Tunnel

The Anatomical region posterior to medial foot and ankle.

Overlies Tibial Nerve

18

Sinus Tarsi

Is a conical shaped cavity

Located between the calcaneus and the talus

19

Contents of the Sinus Tarsi

Interosseous Talocalcaneal Ligament.
Cervical Ligament.
Anterior portion of the subtalar joint capsule and synovium.
Posterior portion of the talocalcaneonaviclar joint capsule and synovium.
Medial, inferior and lateral roots of the inferior extensor retinaculum.
Artery of the tarsal canal.

20

Other Ligaments

Spring Ligament (Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament)
Long Plantar Ligament

21

Common Peroneal Nerve

Palpated 3 cm distal to fibular head.

Vulnearable to compression

22

Posterior Tibial Artery

One-Third of the way along a line between the tip of the medial malleolus and the point of the heel.

Palpated about 2.5 cm higher where it runs behind the medial malleolus

23

Dorsalis Pedis Artery

Palpated along the dorsum of the foot

Between the 1st and 2nd Metatarsal

24

Talocrural Joint

"Hinge Type" Synovial Joint
The talar dome fits in the mortise
The talar dome is wider anteriorly than posteriorly

25

Subtalar Joint

Talus articulates with the calcaneus
Supported by the interosseus talocalcanean ligament
Also-Talocalcaneonavicular Joint

26

Proximal Tibiofibular Joint

Planar (or gliding) type of synovial Joint

27

Distal Tibiofibular Joint

Syndesmotic type fibrous joint