Lower Limb 1: The Gluteal Region and Hip Joint Flashcards Preview

C&M Term 2 > Lower Limb 1: The Gluteal Region and Hip Joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb 1: The Gluteal Region and Hip Joint Deck (42):
1

Give a description of the osteology of the pelvic girdle

2 hip (innominate bones) and the sacrum
Innominate articulate with the sacrum posteriorly at the sacroiliac joints
Articulate anteriorly with each other at the pubic symphysis
Innominate bone derived from 3 separate bones: Ilium, Ischium and Pubic

2

List the main differences between the male and female pelvis

Male:
- heart shaped pelvic inlet
- narrow + deep
- acetabula closer together
- pelvic inlet is smaller, more obstructed
- Pubic arch is V-shaped

Female:
- pelvic inlet larger and more rounded
- pubic arch is U-shaped
- bones lighter, thinner, smoother

3

Functions of the pelvis?

bear weight - transfer from upper skeleton to lower skeleton
provide attachment for muscles of posture and movement
attachment form external reproductive organs and muscles
contain and protect pelvic and abdominal viscera

4

Which ligaments form important foramen at the hip joint?

Sacrotuberous - inserts onto ischial tuberosity
Sacrospinous - inserts onto ischial spine

firmly attach sacrum to ischium and creates to greater and lesser sciatic foramen

5

Movements possible at the hip joint?

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Medial and Lateral rotation
Circumduction

6

Features strengthening the hip joint?

Fibrous capsule surrounding whole joint - covers whole joint to femoral neck - tough but loose to allow full range of movements
Ligaments
Acetabular anatomy - good congruency in ball and socket joint

7

Ligaments involved in strengthening the hip joint?

Iliofemoral
Pubofemoral
Ischiofemoral

8

Describe the iliofemoral ligament

covers joint anteriorly and superiorly
Y shaped
Strongest one
Extends from ilium to intertrochanteric line of the femur
Prevents hyperextension

9

Describe the pubofemoral ligament

Covers joint anteriorly and inferiorly
Prevents abduction

10

Describe the Ischiofemoral ligament

Covers joint posteriorly
attached to ischium and ischial tuberosity to greater trochanter of femur
the weakest one

11

Decribe the blood supply to the hip joint

Femoral artery - major supply, most thigh and all of the leg

Gluteal arteries - superior and inferior, superior divides into superficial and deep branch

Obturator artery - supplies medial thigh

12

Describe the origin of the gluteal arteries

Gluteal arteries:
sup+inf originate in pelvic cavity as branches of internal iliac

13

Describe the superior gluteal artery

Originates from posterior trunk of internal iliac
leaves pelvic cavity with superior gluteal nerve through greater sciatic foramen ABOVE piriformis
Divides into superficial and deep

Superficial Branch - passes onto deep surface of gluteus maximus muscles
Deep branch - passes between gluteus medius and minimus muscles

14

Describe the inferior gluteal artery

Originates from anterior trunk of internal iliac
leaves pelvis with inferior gluteal nerve through greater sciatic foramen BELOW piriformis

Descends through gluteal region into post. thigh and supplies adjacent structures
Anastamoses with perforating branches of the femoral artery

15

Innervation of Gluteus Maximus?

Inferior gluteal nerve, L5,S1,S2

16

Origin of Gluteus maximus?

Posterior gluteal line (ilium)
Sacrum, coccyx,
Sacrotuberous ligament

17

Insertion of Gluteus Maximus?

Posterior iliotibial tract of facia lata
Gluteal tuberosity of femur

18

Function of Gluteus Maximus?

Extends flexed femur at hip
Extends knee
Lateral stabiliser of hip + knee joint
Laterally rotates and abducts thight

19

Innervation of Gluteus Medius + Minimus?

Superior Gluteal Nerve
L4, L5, S1

20

Origin of Gluteus Medius?

External ilium, between anterior + posterior gluteal lines

21

Insertion of Gluteus Medius?

Lateral superior surface of greater trochanter

22

Action of Gluteus Medius?

Abducts femur at hip
Keeps pelvis level when walking
Medially rotate anterior thigh

23

Origin of Gluteus Minimus?

External surface of ilium between anterior + Inferior gluteal lines

24

Insertion of Gluteus Minimus?

Linear facet on anterolateral aspect of the greater trochanter

25

Function of Gluteus Minimus?

Abducts thigh
keeps pelvis level
medially rotates anterior thigh

26

What is the iliotibial tract?

Thickened band of fascia lata descending the lateral margin of the leg
extends from tubercle of iliac crest to attach just below the knee
the band is crucial to stabilising the knee during running

27

what are the chief abductors at the hip joint

Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Minimus

28

Describe the attachments, course and function of Piriformis?

Origin - anterior surface of sacrum
Insertion - medial, posterior, superior border of greater trochanter
Innervation - L5, S1 and S2
Function - Laterally rotates extended femur, abducts flexed femur

Exits pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen

29

Where does the sciatic nerve leave the pelvis?

Emerges from the lower border of piriformis

30

What passes superior to piriformis?

Superior gluteal nerve
superior gluteal artery
superior gluteal vein

31

What passes inferior to piriformis?

Sciatic Nerve (L4 - S3)
nerve to quadrator femoris
nerve to obturator internus
posterior cutaneous nerve to thigh
pudendal nerve
Inferior gluteal N/A/V

32

What passes through the lesser sciatic foramen?

Tendon of obturator internus
Pudendal nerve
Internal pudendal vessels
Nerve to obturator internus

33

What is the origin of obturator internus?

anterolateral wall of pelvis,
deep surface of obturator membrane and bone

34

What is the origin of the Gemelli muscles?

Gemellus Superior - external surface of ischial spine

Gemellus Inferior - Upper ischial tuberosity

35

What is the common insertion of Piriformis, Obturator Internus and the Gemelli?

Medial side of the greater trochanter

36

What is the common function of Piriformis, Obturator Internus, quadratus femoris and the Gemelli?

Laterally rotate the extended femur
(pirformis abducts the flexed femur)

37

What are the attachments of Quadratus Femoris?

Origin - lateral ischium anterior to ischial tuberosity

Insertion - quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of proximal femur

38

What is the nerve supply of Obturator Internus and Gemellus superior?

Nerve to Obturator Internus
L5, S1

39

What is the nerve supply to Gemellus Inferior and Quadratus Femoris?

Nerve to Quadratus Femoris
L5, S1

40

Where is it safe to give an intramuscular injection in the gluteal region?

Upper outer quadrant of gluteal region

41

What is the Tensor Fascia Latae Muscle

extends from lateral crest of ilium to insert onto iliotibial tract
laterally rotates the extended femur

42

nerve roots of the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3