Lower Limb 3: Anterior and Medial Compartments of the Thigh Flashcards Preview

C&M Term 2 > Lower Limb 3: Anterior and Medial Compartments of the Thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower Limb 3: Anterior and Medial Compartments of the Thigh Deck (40):
1

What does avulsed mean?

the action of pulling or tearing away

2

what 3 articulations make up the knee joint?

medial femerotibial
lateral femerotibial
femeropatellar

the fibula is not involved

3

What are the menisci?

2 c-shaped wedges of fibrocartilage
1 medial and 1 lateral
improve the congruency between tibial plateau and femoral condyles

4

how are the menisci associated with the knee joint?

medial: attached to joint capsule + tibial collateral ligament
Lateral: unattached to joint, connected to popliteus muscle

5

Describe the cruciate ligaments

anterior + posterior in the intercondylar region of knee and interconnect femur and tibia
criss-cross obliquely

6

describe the anterior cruciate ligament

extends from anterior intercondylar region of tibia and ascends supero-posteriorly to lateral condyle of femur
prevents anterior displacement of tibia and hyperextension
weaker

7

describe the posterior cruciate ligament

extends from posterior intercondylar region of tibia and ascends supero-anteriorly to medial condyle of femur
prevents posterior dislocation and hyperflexion
stronger
main stabiliser of the flexed knee when weight bearing (i.e. going down hill)

8

Why are the medial collateral ligament and the medial menisci often injured simultaneously?

they are attached to one another

9

what range of movements are possible at the knee joint?

Extension
Flexion
Medial rotation
Lateral rotation

10

through what does the long (great) saphenous vein pass

Saphenous hiatus/opening in the deep fascia

11

What are the borders of the femoral triangle?

Superiorly: Inguinal ligament
Lateral: medial border of Sartorius
Medial: medial border of adductor longus
Roof: fascia lata
Floor: Pectineus, iliopsoas and adductor longus

12

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

From lateral to medial
N-A-V-E-L
Nerve(femoral)
femoral artery
femoral vein
empty space to cope with fluctuating flow
lymphatics

13

what does the femoral nerve innvervate?

anterior compartment of the thigh - pectineus, iliacus, Sartorius
+ knee extensors - quadriceps femoris muscles
provides sensory branches for the leg and foot

14

describe the arterial supply of the lower limb

3 arteries enter the thigh: femoral, obturator, inferior gluteal
anastamose around the hip

15

describe the course of the femoral artery

external iliac becomes femoral as it passes beneath inguinal ligament
passes down vertically through femoral triangle in adductor canal
leaves canal at adductor hiatus in adductor magnus muscle and becomes popliteal artery behind the knee

16

what is/the course of the largest branch of the femoral artery?

Profunda femoris artery
orginates from lateral side in femoral triangle
connects with popliteal at the knee
gives off the lateral and medial circumflex arteries, and 3 perforating branches

17

What are the boundaries of the adductor canal?

Anteriorly (roof): Sartorius
Posteromedially: adductor longus + adductor magnus
Laterally: Vastus medialis

18

What is the origin and insertion of Sartorius?

Origin: ASIS

Insertion: medial tibial shaft, near tibial tuberosity

19

What is the innervation and function of Sartorius?

Innervation: femoral nerve, L2, L3, L4

Function: flex thigh at hip and flex leg at knee. laterally rotate hip

20

How many muscles are there in the anterior compartment of the thigh?

8
Psoas major
Iliacus
Pectineus
Sartorius
the Quadriceps muscles:
- rectus femoris
- vastus lateralis
- vastus medialis
- vastus intermedialis

21

Which nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Femoral nerve (L2, L3, L4)

22

What is the origin of rectus femoris?

Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS)

23

What is the origin of vastus medialis?

Medial intertrochanteric line

24

What is the origin of vastus lateralis?

Lateral intertrochanteric line

25

What is the origin of vastus intermedialis?

Upper 2/3 of anterolateral femur

26

What is the common insertion of the quadriceps muscles?

Quadriceps femoris tendon (QFT)
(+ medial and lateral border of patella for vastus')

27

What is the common function of the quadriceps muscles?

Extend leg at knee

(+ rectus femoris flex thigh at hip)

28

What are the muscles of the medial compartment of the leg?

Adductor Longus
Adductor Brevis
Adductor Magnus
Gracilis
Obturator externus

29

What is the principal function of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Adduct thigh at hip

30

What is the blood supply to the medial compartment?

Obturator artery

31

What is the common nerve supply of the medial compartment?

Obturator nerve

32

What is the origin and insertion of adductor longus?

Origin: body of pubis, lateral to pubic symphysis

Insertion: middle 1/3 linea aspera

33

What is the origin and insertion of adductor brevis?

Origin: body of pubis, inferior pubic ramus

Insertion: posterior pectineal line and upper 1/3 linea aspera

34

What is the origin and insertion of adductor magnus?

Adductor part:
Origin: ischiopubic ramus
Insertion: posterior medial lip of linea aspera

Hamstring part:
Origin: ischial tuberosity
Insertion: medial femoral condyle

35

What is the origin and insertion of gracilis?

Origin: inferior ischio-pubic ramus and pubic symphysis

Insertion: superior medial tibial shaft

36

What is the origin and insetion of obturator externus?

Origin: external obturator membrane and bone

Insertion: postero-medial trochanteric fossa

37

Where is the adductor hiatus located?

opening in distal tendon of adductor magnus
femoral artery and vein pass through this to enter popliteal fossa

38

Where is the femoral ring?

it is the entrance to the femoral triangle

39

How is the femoral ring associated with hernias?

some of the intestine can sometimes pass into the femoral canal, causing a femoral hernia

40

What are the borders of the femoral ring?

Anteriorly: inguinal ligament
Posteriorly: pectineal ligament
Medially: lacunar ligament
Laterally: femoral vein