Flashcards in Lower limb 5 - The foot Deck (27):
What is the ankle joint?
A hinge-type synovial joint between the distal tibia, fibula and the talus
What are the possible movements at the ankle joint? (4)
What is the ankle joint strengthened by?
By a number of ligaments that are name after the bones they are attached to.
What are the 2 important inter tarsal joints?
1. subtalar joint
2. transverse talar joint
What 2 bones is the subtalar joint formed by?
What 2 articulations is the transverse talar joint formed by?
1.the calcaneus and cuboid bone
2. the navicular and talus bones
What movements are possible at the subtalar joint? (2)
What do the transverse and longitudinal arches do and what are they important in?
act as shock absorbers
important in weight bearing function of the foot
What factors support the arches of the foot?
Passive - ligaments and shape of bones
Dynamic - intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the foot
What pes planus?
flat footedness due to loose or degenerating ligaments
What are the 2 intrinsic extensor muscles and where are they located?
1. extensor hallucis brevis
2. extensor digitorum brevis
on the dorsum of the foot
Innervation of the skin and muscles of the dorsum of the foot is done by which nerves?
1. deep fibular nerve
2. sural nerve
3. superficial nerve
4. saphenous nerve
read Grays for more info
Where are the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the foot located and how many layers are they arranged into?
plantar aspect of the foot
What does the first layer of intrinsic muscles in the plantar aspect of located? (3)
1. flexor digitorum brevis
2. adductor hallucis
3. abductor digiti minimi
What is the function of aponeurosis?
join muscles and the body parts the muscles act upon whether it be bone or muscle.
What are the second layer of intrinsic muscles in the plantar aspect of the foot?
1. flexor hallucis longus
2. flexor digitorum longus
4. quadratus plantae
What are the flexor accessory muscles
lumbrical and quadrates plantae
What does the third layer of plantar muscles contain?
flexor hallucis brevis
flexor digiti mimimi brevis
adductor hallucis - transverse and oblique head
What does the fourth (deepest) layer of the plantar muscles contain?
1. dorsal interossei
2. Plantar interossei
How many plantar interossei muscles are there?
How many dorsal interossei muscles are there?
What are the dorsal and plantar interossei muscles attached to and occupy?
spaces between metatarsal bones
Where do the inetrossei adduct and abduct and what is the range of movement like?
about an axis which passes along the second toe
range of movement is small
What do the plantar interossei muscles do?
PAD - plantar adduct
What do the dorsal interossei muscles do?
DAB - dorsal abduct
What nerves supplies the sole of the foot? (5)
1. medial plantar nerve
2. saphenous nerve
3. tibial nerve
4. sural nerve
5. lateral plantar nerve