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Flashcards in Lower Limb Deck (41):
1

What are the 4 phases of walking/gait?

Heel strike
Support
Toe-off
Swing/carry through

2

Label the parts of the pelvis

Ilium
Pubic
Ischium
Iliac crest
Anterior iliac spine
Posterior iliac spine
Ischium
Sciatic notch
Acetabulum
Ischia tuberosity
Pubic tubercle
Ischial spine
Obturator foramen

3

What 3 ligaments join the pelvis to the femur?

Pubofemoral
Iliofemoral
Ischiofemoral

4

What are the roles of the acetabular labrum?

Deepens the acetabulum
Increases stability of the joint

5

Define coxa valga and coxa vara

Coxa valga - angle between the head and neck of femur is increased causing a lateral movement of the femur and knee joint

Coxa vara - angle between the head and neck of femur is decreased causing a medial movement of the femur and knee joint aka knocked knees

6

Follow the branches of the iliac artery from the pelvic region to the femur

Common iliac artery - external iliac artery - femoral artery - deep femoral artery - medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery

7

Which muscles does the internal iliac artery supply?

Gluteal muscles
Pelvis (via obturator artery)
Genitalia
Perineum
Median compartment of the limb

8

What are the joints of the thigh and what type of joints are they?

Hip (femur and acetabulum) - ball and socket
Knee (patellafemoral joint) - plane
Knee (tibiofemoral joint) - hinge

9

Describe the location of the great saphenous vein in relation to the femur, knee joint and tibia

Medial to all of them

10

Which nerves supply the gluteus muscles?

Gluteus maximus - inferior gluteal nerve

Gluteus medius and minimus - superior gluteal nerve

11

What is the Trendelenberg gait?

When abducting of one the sides of the hip while walking or standing on one foot, the other supporting side is unable to maintain a fixed position of the hip due to weakness of its gluteus medius and minimus muscles resulting in the unsupported side tilting

12

Which muscles aid in hip flexion?

Iliacus

Psoas major

iliopsoas

13

Which movements does the gluteus maximus aid in?

Hip extension

Lateral rotation

Abduction of the femur

14

Where can the adductor muscles of the thigh be found?

Medial to the femur

15

Which nerves innervate the following areas of the thigh - medial compartment, anterior compartment and posterior compartment

Medial - obturator nerve
Anterior - femoral nerve
Posterior - sciatic nerve

16

What are the borders of the femoral triangle and what can be found inside it?

Sartorius (lateral)
Adductor longus (medial)
Inguinal ligament (superior)

Inside it - femoral artery, vein and nerve, lymph nodes

17

Where is the popliteal fossa located and what can be found inside it?

On the posterior side of the knee joint

Popliteal artery and vein
Tibial nerve
Common fibular nerve

18

What are the ligaments of the knee joint?

Posterior cruciate ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
Patellar ligament
Medial collateral ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
Medial patellofemoral ligament
Lateral patellofemoral ligament

19

Define housemaid’s knee and clergyman’s knee

Housemaid’s - inflammation of the prepatella bursa

Clergyman’s - inflammation of the infrapatella bursa

20

What are the movements of the ankle?

Inversion
Eversion
Plantar flexion
Dorsi flexion

21

In which 2 locations in the foot can a pulse be taken from and where are they?

Dorsalis pedis artery

Posterior tibial artery

22

What passes through the tarsal tunnel?

Tibial vein
Tibial artery
Tibial nerve
Tibialis posterior
Flexor digitorum
Flexor hallucis longus

23

What are the bones of the foot?

Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
Cuboid
Cuneiforms
Metatarsals
Phalanges

24

What 4 compartments is the plantar foot separated into?

Medial
Lateral
Superficial central
Calcaneal

25

What is paronychia?

Infection of the nail fold space

26

Which 5 nerves innervate the foot?

Tibial nerve
Saphaneous nerve
Sural nerve
Deep peroneal nerve
Superficial peroneal nerve

27

What are the 3 different arches of the foot and where are they?

Medial arch - medial side of foot
Lateral arch - lateral side of foot
Transverse arch - underneath toes

28

What is plantar fasciitis and what are the resulting symptoms?

Inflammation of the plantar fascia

Heel pain
Tenderness over calcaneus

29

What are the most common sites of compartment syndrome?

Calf
Arm
Thigh

30

What is a compartment?

Fascial bound space that is closed off from other areas

31

What is sciatica?

Irritation of the sciatic nerve most commonly due to a prolapsed disc resulting in pain

32

What is cauda equina syndrome and what are the symptoms?

Condition due to damage to nerve bundles below the end of the spinal cord aka the cauda equina

Loss of anal tone, painless urinary retention and erectile dysfunction

33

What are the types of fractures?

Open
Closed
Stress
Greenstick
Pathological
Insufficiency
Avulsion

34

What are some ways to investigate an injury?

X rays
Stress views
Arthropgraphy
MRI
CT
Aspiration

35

What are the 3 degrees of movement for a joint? Describe them

Diarthroses - freely moveable joints (synovial joints)

Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints

Synarthroses - little or no movements

36

What are the components on synovial fluid?

Blood plasma
Hyaluronic acid
Collagenases
Lubricin
Proteinases

37

What are menisci and where can they be found?

Discs of fibrocartilage that can be found in the knee, jaw and sternoclavicular joint

38

What is the pathology of osteoarthritis and what are the 3 stages?

When bone degradation surpasses bone formation resulting in break down of bone and cartilage

1 - excess proteolytic breakdown of cartilage matrix
2 - fibrillation and erosion of cartilage
3 - uptake of breakdown products by synovial cells and inflammatory reaction

39

What is the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?

Autoimmune chronic systemic joint inflammatory disease of an unknown cause

40

When does ageing begin?

When adulthood is reached

41

What is the function of bisphosphonates?

Anti-restorative agents that inactivate osteoclasts decreasing their activity resulting in reduced bone turnover