Flashcards in Lower Limb Deck (42):
What are the 4 phases of walking/gait?
Label the parts of the pelvis
Anterior iliac spine
Posterior iliac spine
What 3 ligaments join the pelvis to the femur?
What are the roles of the acetabular labrum?
Deepens the acetabulum
Increases stability of the joint
Define coxa valga and coxa vara
Coxa valga - angle between the head and neck of femur is increased causing a lateral movement of the femur and knee joint
Coxa vara - angle between the head and neck of femur is decreased causing a medial movement of the femur and knee joint aka knocked knees
Follow the branches of the iliac artery from the pelvic region to the femur
Common iliac artery - external iliac artery - femoral artery - deep femoral artery - medial and lateral circumflex femoral artery
Which muscles does the internal iliac artery supply?
Pelvis (via obturator artery)
Median compartment of the limb
What are the joints of the thigh and what type of joints are they?
Hip (femur and acetabulum) - ball and socket
Knee (patellafemoral joint) - plane
Knee (tibiofemoral joint) - hinge
Describe the location of the great saphenous vein in relation to the femur, knee joint and tibia
Medial to all of them
Which nerves supply the gluteus muscles?
Gluteus maximus - inferior gluteal nerve
Gluteus medius and minimus - superior gluteal nerve
What is the Trendelenberg gait?
When abducting of one the sides of the hip while walking or standing on one foot, the other supporting side is unable to maintain a fixed position of the hip due to weakness of its gluteus medius and minimus muscles resulting in the unsupported side tilting
Which muscles aid in hip flexion?
Which movements does the gluteus maximus aid in?
Abduction of the femur
Where can the adductor muscles of the thigh be found?
Medial to the femur
Which nerves innervate the following areas of the thigh - medial compartment, anterior compartment and posterior compartment
Medial - obturator nerve
Anterior - femoral nerve
Posterior - sciatic nerve
What are the borders of the femoral triangle and what can be found inside it?
Adductor longus (medial)
Inguinal ligament (superior)
Inside it - femoral artery, vein and nerve, lymph nodes
Where is the popliteal fossa located and what can be found inside it?
On the posterior side of the knee joint
Popliteal artery and vein
Common fibular nerve
What are the ligaments of the knee joint?
Posterior cruciate ligament
Anterior cruciate ligament
Medial collateral ligament
Lateral collateral ligament
Medial patellofemoral ligament
Lateral patellofemoral ligament
Define housemaid’s knee and clergyman’s knee
Housemaid’s - inflammation of the prepatella bursa
Clergyman’s - inflammation of the infrapatella bursa
What are the movements of the ankle?
In which 2 locations in the foot can a pulse be taken from and where are they?
Dorsalis pedis artery
Posterior tibial artery
What passes through the tarsal tunnel?
Flexor hallucis longus
What are the bones of the foot?
What 4 compartments is the plantar foot separated into?
What is paronychia?
Infection of the nail fold space
Which 5 nerves innervate the foot?
Deep peroneal nerve
Superficial peroneal nerve
What are the 3 different arches of the foot and where are they?
Medial arch - medial side of foot
Lateral arch - lateral side of foot
Transverse arch - underneath toes
What is plantar fasciitis and what are the resulting symptoms?
Inflammation of the plantar fascia
Tenderness over calcaneus
What are the most common sites of compartment syndrome?
What is a compartment?
Fascial bound space that is closed off from other areas
What is sciatica?
Irritation of the sciatic nerve most commonly due to a prolapsed disc resulting in pain
What is cauda equina syndrome and what are the symptoms?
Condition due to damage to nerve bundles below the end of the spinal cord aka the cauda equina
Loss of anal tone, painless urinary retention and erectile dysfunction
What are the types of fractures?
What are some ways to investigate an injury?
What are the 3 degrees of movement for a joint? Describe them
Diarthroses - freely moveable joints (synovial joints)
Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints
Synarthroses - little or no movements
What are the components on synovial fluid?
What are menisci and where can they be found?
Discs of fibrocartilage that can be found in the knee, jaw and sternoclavicular joint
What is the pathology of osteoarthritis and what are the 3 stages?
When bone degradation surpasses bone formation resulting in break down of bone and cartilage
1 - excess proteolytic breakdown of cartilage matrix
2 - fibrillation and erosion of cartilage
3 - uptake of breakdown products by synovial cells and inflammatory reaction
What is the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis?
Autoimmune chronic systemic joint inflammatory disease of an unknown cause
When does ageing begin?
When adulthood is reached
What are the 5 criteria for measuring fraility?
Unintentional weight loss
Self reported exhaustion
Low physical activity load